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FPSO Classification

FPSO Classification

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OFFSHORE
8
byG.Alford
FPSOClassification
AccountingfortheVariables
FPSOcontractsusuallyinvolveanumberofdifferentcontractorsforthesupplyofmajorcomponentsofthevessel,eg.theshipyard,mooringsystemcontractorandthemanufactureroftheprocessunits.Itisoftenthecasethattheseactivitiesarecarriedoutindifferentlocationsandcountries.ItIsthereforeessentialthatauniformandacceptablestandardisimplementedandalsothattheinterfacebetweenthevariouscompo-nentsareproperlyaddressed.Classificationisasystemwhichcansuccessfullyprovidetheseservices.
Mr.
G.
AlfordisHead
of
theOceanEngineeringDepartmentintheOffshoreGroupinLondonwhichdealswithalltypes
of
fixedandfloatingin-stallations.Thisarticleisreproducedwithpermission
of
Lloyd'sRegisterTechnicalAssociation
1.INTRODUCTION
Table1
~----
..
-~---.---------
....
-
...
_----__----,--,,----
FieldCountryOperatorInstalledDescription
----___-----,--__--_--_----_
..
-.----~----
..
,
...
--
GriffinAustraliaB.H.P.Petroleum
1993
NewBuildDragonVietnamPetrochimNietsovpetro
1994
ConversionFife
UK
AmeradaHess/Bluewater
1995
ConversionBarracudaBrazilPetrobras
1995
ConversionLiverpoolBay
UK
B.H.P.(HamiltonOil)
1996
NewBuildMauiBCaptainShellTodd
1996
ConversionCaptain
UK
Texaco
1996
NewBuildCNS(Teal)
U.K.
Shell
1996
NewBuildMacCulloch
U.K.
SLP/Maersk
1997
ConversionScruehallion
UK
AtlanticFrontierAlliance
1997
NewBuildDurward/Dauntless
U.K.
AmeradaHess/Bluewater
1997
NewBuildCurlew
U.K.
Shell/MASAlliance
1997
ConversionGalley
UK
Texaco/ODCC
1998
Conversion
Thechangingnatureoftoday'sinterna-tionaloilindustryisclearlyreflectedbytheincreasinguseoffloatingproduc-tionsystemsworld-wide.Theinstalla-tionsrecentlyClassed/CertifiedbyLRareshowninTable1.FloatingProduction,StorageandOfflo-adingUnits(FPSOs)provideanumberofpracticaladvantagescomparedwithfixedinstallations.Theyarestraightfor-wardtobuild,basedonconventionalshipbuildingtechnology,andexpensi-veoffshoreworkiskepttoaminimumasmostoftheconstruction,hook-upandcommissioningcanbecompletedinshoreatsignificantlylesscost.FPSOshavetheabilitytohandleheavypaylo-
FlareSeparationGascompressionplantProcessplantWaterinjectionplantOfftakesystemControlroomTurrettransferBridgeMaincontrolroomHelideckLivingquarter.
:::
::.,
....
thrusters
4651211:l
Figure1
risers
adsandtoaddequipmentincremen-tallytofitproductionandreservoirchangesaswellasofferingstorageandoffloadingfacilities.Theyareeasiertoinstallanddecommissionandcanbeusedagaininotherfields.Itisalsothecasethatcurrenttechnicaldevelop-mentsfavourtheuseofFPSOsforlargerfieldsandindeepwateroperations.Withoilpriceslikelytoremainlow,ma-nyfielddevelopmentswillonlygoaheadwithreducedcapitalexpenditu-re.Theindustryisnowgeareduptoprovidelowercostprojectsbutwillthesafetyobjectivesbefulfilledinthisstar-kereconomicenvironment?Classifica-tioncanfulfiltherequirementsofsafetyandthenew"goalsetting"regulationsnowinplacebymanynationalauthori-ties.FPSOsareintegratedproductionsvs-temswhicharemadeupfromdi.
e-s·e
typesofcomponentstoenab'e
:-e-~
tocarryoutoperations.
Cl3SS.::3:J1.
therefore,mustbeableto
3CJG-eSS
thelargenumberofvariaDles.'.'l,chareshowninFigure1andno.ice:*StructuresCO'lverSlons*Mooringsvsterns
 
*
Processplant
*
Safetysystems
*
Stability
*
Inspection/maintenanceonsiteAlliancecontractingisbecomingmorewidespreadasoilcompaniesseektoshareresponsibilitieswithcontractorsandjointlyimprovefielddevelopmenteconomics.
As
aresult,majorcompo-nentsofFPSOscanbemanufacturedindifferentlocationsaroundtheworldtomeetcontractcompletionschedules,egotheFPSOhullcanbebuiltinJapan,theprocessmodulesinHollandandthefinalinstallationintheUK.Becauseoftheirinternationalset-up,classificationsocietiesofferatotalserviceincludingsurvey,inspection,planapprovalandlong-termintegritymanagement.TheglobalnetworkofLRofficesprovidesco-ordinationand'on-the-spot'sup-portfordesignappraisalandsitecon-struction.Itisdifficulttothinkofanot-hercomparablesystemwhichcanprovideindustrywithsimilarimpartialservicesonaworld-widebasis.ClassificationhasplayedanimportantroleinthemarineindustryandcanalsoprovideFPSOoperatorswithstandardswhichareinlinewiththeirneedsfor"fitnessforpurpose"andwhichalsofulfilthelevelofsafetyrequiredbytheauthorities.
2.REGULATIONS
Tooperatewithintheterritorialwatersofmostcountries,anFPSOwillrequiretocomplywithalltheappropriatere-gulations.Thesewillincludeclassifica-tionrules,nationalauthoritystandards,statutoryregulationsandrelevantco-desandstandards.
2.1VerificationRegulations
NewverificationregulationsarenowinforceintheUKtoreplacetheexistingcertificationscheme.Thekeychangeistherequirementthatsystemsidentifiedasbeingsafetycriticalwillhavetobesubjectedtoaverificationschemeth-roughoutthelifecycleofthedevelop-ment.Itislikelythatothercountrieswilladoptsimilarschemes.Norwayiscurrentlyin-troducingthisapproachtoallnewfielddevelopments.ThenewUKregulationsmaketheope-ratorresponsiblefortwoimportantissues:(i)Setanddefinetheroleofnon-pre-scriptivesafetygoalswhichareparti-culartotheinstallationandestablishtheperformancestandardsrequired
SCHIP&WERFdeZEE
bytheprojecttoachievethesegoals.(ii)Establishaverificationscheme(em-ployinganindependentparty)whichauditsallthecriticalissuesaf-fectingthedesign,construction,in-stallation,andoperation.Toenablecompliancewiththerequire-mentsoftheverificationscheme,thenewregulationshaveidentifiedthefol-lowingimportantpoints:
*
Independenceandimpartiality.Theverificationworkcanbeonlybeundertakenbyacompetentbodywhichisnotinvolvedinanydesign,manufacturingormanagementac-tivityofthedevelopment.
*
Completenessandqualityassurance.Theverificationworkshouldprovideafullaudittocoverexaminationofanydesign,specification,certificateanddocumentandalsoincludethefabrication,installationandopera-tionactivitiesrequiredtomonitorthequalityofthecriticalsystemsoftheinstallation.
*
Mitigationandprevention.Theverificationschemeshouldidentifydesignerrorswiththepo-tentialtocauseamajoraccidentandinitiateanyappropriatepreventiveaction.Classificationfulfilsalltheserequire-mentsandcatersforthelifecycleofthedevelopment.Itisconcernedwiththesafetyintegrityandqualityofmarinestructuresandalsoprovidescomplian-cewiththeverificationregulations.Theclassificationsociety'sownrules,arere-gularlyupdatedtotakeaccountofthedevelopmentsarisingfromserviceex-perience,newdesigntechniquesandmaterialandconstructionmethods.Inaddition,theclassificationsociety'ssta-tusfulfilstherequirementsofaninde-pendentandimpartialverificationbo-dy.Wheretherearenonationalverificationrequirements,classificationrulescanprovidetheindependentstandardsandprescriptionguidanceacceptabletogovernmentauthorities,insurersandotherinterestedpartiesworldwide.Lloyd'sRegistersclassificationisrecog-nisedthroughouttheworldandisfor-mallyacceptedbytheGovernmentsofAustralia,Canada,thePeoplesRepublicofChina,Denmark,Indonesia,theIrishRepublic,theNetherlands,NewZea-land,Norway,PapuaNewGuinea,theUSAandtheUK.LRhasalsoworkedwithandassistedvariousgovernmentsinformulatingre-gulationsorselectingapplicablestan-dards.InVietnam,LRandtheVietna-meseRegisterofShipping(VIRES)haveagreedajointventurewhichpermitsLRtoprovideafullrangeoftechnicalservi-cesassociatedwithoffshoreandindus-trialprojects.
2.2StatutoryRegulations
TheextenttowhichMARPOLandSO-LASregulationsaretobeappliedwillbedeterminedbythecoastalstateandalsotheflagstate,anditisclearlyim-portantthattheownersdiscusstheirproposalswiththeappropriatebodiesattheearliestopportunity.IMOhavedecidedthattankerswhichareusedsolelyforthestorageandpro-ductionofoil,andaremooredinafixedlocation,arenotrequiredtohavedoublehulledconstructionunlessspe-cifiedbythecoastalstate.Thepropo-sedarrangements(includingforexa-mpleasinglebottomhull,thelayoutofstorageandballasttanksetc.)should,therefore,beclarifiedearlyinthede-signphasewiththenationaladminist-ration.IftheFPSOisregisteredwithaflagad-ministration,itislikelythatitwillhavetocomplywithMARPOLRegulation25fordamagestabilityandseagoingshipintactstabilitycriteria.Thiswillsatisfytherequirementsofmostnationalauthorities.Aloadlinemaynotbere-quiredwhilstthevesselismooredonstationbutcouldberequiredforthedeliveryvoyageorwhenintransitifthesevoyagesaremanned.
2.3Class
Rules
LRRulesforFloatingProductionInstal-lationsincludessectionscovering:
*
Hullandturretstructure.
*
Processplant.
*
Marinesystems.
*
Risersystem.
*
Anchoringandmooring.FulldetailsconcerningtherangeofclassnotationscanbeobtainedfromLR'sRulesforFloatingProductionInstal-lationsalthoughthefollowingisatypi-calFPSOclassnotation:
ffi
01100ATFloatingoilproductionandstorageinstallation,PPF.
ffi
OMC,IGS,SBT(LR),COW(LR).
3.INTEGRATIONWrTlITHEPROJECT
3.1
Project
Team
Manager
Onrecentprojects,LRhasofferedanef-fectivewaytodealwithclassificationthroughgreaterintegrationinthepro-
9
 
TexacoCaptainJointVenture
Certificationmanager
L
I
LR
Projectcoordinator
I
Shipbuilder
I
Astano
I
LR
Madridcoordinator
I
LRsurveyorLRMadridLRSurveyorsAstanositeHulldesignVendorappraisalstaffequipmentLRsurveyorsLRHOLRModulesiteDesignappraisalMarinespecialistsWarrantor
Figure2jectteam.Figure
2
showsatypicalpro-jectteamset-up.Adedicatedprojectmanagerwillbeplacedintheprojectofficetoco-ordinateallaspectsoftheclassificationprocess.HisfirsttaskistoestablishthemostcostefficientmeansofinterfacebetweenLRandthepro-ject.Hewillprepareaprojectspecificqualityplan,proceduresandworkin-structionscontrollingtheclassificationactivitieswhichinterfacewiththeclient'squalitysystem.Hewillidentifytherequirementsfordesignappraisalandsurveyactivitiesandagreetheex-tentofworktobeperformedforeachtask.Theprojectmanagerwillalsobeavaila-bletotakeanactivepartinface-to-facediscussionsonanyproblemsraised.Thusthelinesofcommunicationinthedesignphasearestraightenedconside-rably.Hecanalsoassistwithequipmentprocurementbyinstructingvendorsontheirclassificationresponsibilitiesandis-sueformalworkinstructionstotheap-propriateLRoffice(s)whenpurchaseordersareplaced.Thisintegratedapproachminimisestheclients'owneffortsandsignificantlyre-ducestheamountofcommunicationsanddocumentationrequiredfortheclassificationprocess.Havingtheworkmonitoredonacontinuousbasis,bothtechnicallyandwithregardtocostcon-trolandschedules,canachieveworth-whilecostsavings.
3.2ProjectSystems
InherentinthisstrategyareanumberofotherkeyimprovementswhichLRhasmadetoenhancetheirservice.Theseinclude:
*
Documentimagefacilitiesutilisingacimagedocumentmanagementsystem(Cimage).Thisfacilityoffersamajorpotentialtimeandcostsa-vingfortheoperatorwithregardtothehandlingandsubmissionofdo-cumentsandhasimproveddrawingapprovalturnaroundtime.Itispos-
10
4692;02
sibletobuildlinksbetweenthede-SignersCADsystemandCimage.Theapprovedplanscanbereturnedtotheclientusingthesamemedi-umastheoriginalsubmissions.
*
Anindependentprojectmanage-mentsystem(IPMS)forthecontrolofprojectcorrespondenceanddo-cuments.IPMScanbeprovidedinstandaloneornetworkversionsandcanthusbemountedonalaptopforfullportabilityifnecessary.TheLRprojectmanagerwillusethissys-temtomonitordocumentturna-roundrequirementsandgeneratecommentresponsesheets(CRSS)whichrecorddocumentapprovals.
*
Astandalonesystem(MicrosoftAc-cess)formonitoringandcontrolofsurveyworkandsurveycosts.Successfulprojectintegrationwillalsodevelopacloseinteractionwiththeclientatanearlystageofthedesign.Alltheabovesystemscanbeusedincon-junctionwiththeprojectteamtoprovi-dedesignappraisalwithintheclientof-ficeswhereneeded.Earlyagreementonfundamentalde-signissuessuchassiteenvironment,designcases,fatiguedata,mooringsys-temetc.canhelptoresolveandavoidproblemswhichcouldbeencounteredinthedesignandconstructionoftheinstallation,andwhich,ifleftuncorrec-ted,couldleadtoexpensivemodifica-tionsandrepairs.Conceptdesigneva-luationasoutlinedinthefollowingSectionprovidesaroutetoidentifyingproblemareasearlyinthedesignpha-se.
4.CONCEPTOESIGNEVALUATION
Theconceptdesignevaluationstudyisintendedtoestablishtheintegrityofthedesignandassuchshouldbeappli-cabletomannedfloatingproductioninstallations,providethesafetygoalsoftheintendeddesignandsatisfythefield'sregulatoryregime.Offshorelegislationworld-wideposesnewchallengesforoffshoreoperatorsastheyseektoachieveanddemonstra-tethesafetyoftheirinstallations,bothtosafeguardtheirworkforceandalsotoguaranteethecontinuedoperationsoftheirassets.InlinewiththesechallengesLRhasde-velopedtheConceptDesignEvaluationService(CDE).Theobjectivesoftheprogrammeare:
*
toensurethatthedesignisbasedonsatisfactorystandardsandcouldbedevelopedforclassification/verifica-tion.
*
toverifythatthefloatingproductionconceptchosenforthefielddeve-lopmentwillresultinanacceptableinstallationandthatnomajorchan-gesandresultingcostpenaltieswillbenecessarybecauseofsafetyorle-gislativerequirements.*toensurethatthepotentiallossofhumanlife,environmentalpollution,andpropertyandbusinessinterruptionlosses,asaconsequenceofanaccidentare
"As
Low
As
ReasonablyPracticable"(ALARP).CDEwillassisttheoperatoratanearlystagetoconsiderthelegislativerequire-mentsandidentifyareasofconcernswhichcouldaffectthedesign(seeFigu-re
3).
ForthispurposetheCDEincorpo-ratestwoexaminationphases,thecon-ceptdesignappraisalandtheconceptsafetyevaluation.
4.1
ConceptDesign
Appraisal(COA)
TheCDAisspecificallytailoredtomatchtheoverallobjectivesofthede-signdevelopmentandwillnormallyco-verthefundamentaldesignaspects.TheCDAisbasedonreviewandapprai-salofthedesigndocumentscoveringthemostimportantareasoftheFPSOdevelopment,namely:*generallayoutarrangement*mainhullstructureandstorage
*
mooringsystem/turret
*
stability*process/utilitysystems*environmentalcriteriaTheintentionofthereviewistoensurethatthedesignisbasedonsatisfactorystandards,tohighlightatanearlystageanyareasrequiringimprovementandtoverifythatthedesigncanbedeve.opedtomeetallapplicablelegisla:
=-
Atypicalassessmentcarried
OL.·'":."-
oftheCDAcouldinclude
coe--:;-.
mooringanalysis,initial
S:3C-
manceetc.
4.2
ConceptSafety
Evaluation
(CSEJ
TheCSEassistsmeoperatortodefine
:=-
-a..
=:;FdeZEE
OKTom.~R

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