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Kinematics on Various Coordinate Systems

Kinematics on Various Coordinate Systems

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Published by Boray Değerliyurt

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Published by: Boray Değerliyurt on Aug 25, 2011
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08/25/2011

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Kinematics on various coordinate systems
Polar Coordinate System
From the figure we can see that,
̂̂̂̂
 And using geometry,
̂
̂̂
 
̂
̂̂
 Take the derivative wrt time of position vector
 ̇̇ ̇̂̇ ̇̂
 Arrange all,
 ̇̇̂̂ ̇̂̂
 Expression between first parentheses is unit radial vector and second is unit angular vector.So we have,
 ̇̇ ̂
 ̇̂
 Go back to the formula;
 ̇̇̂̂ ̇̂̂
 Take second derivative,
 
  ̈[̈̂̂̇ ̇̂̂][̇ ̇̂̂  ̈̂̂ ̇
̂̂]
 Arrange all
  ̈̈̂̂̇ ̇̂̂  ̈̂̂ ̇
̂̂
 And,
  ̈̈ ̇
̂̂̇ ̇  ̈̂̂
 Substitute unit vectors,
  ̈̈ ̇
̂
̇ ̇  ̈̂
 
Cylindrical coordinate system
Proof is very similar to
that of polar coordinate’s
,
we can just add derivatives of z component.
 ̇̇ ̂
 ̇̂
̇ 
 
  ̈(̈ ̇
)̂
(̇ ̇  ̈)̂
̈ 
 
N-T coordinate system
Proof is a little different,Where point O is the origin, C is center of curvature.Now since differential lengths are very small, secants coincide arcs, thus
 
||
 And using arc length formula,
 
||
 Clearly seen that direction of ds is e
t
direction, so we can write
̂

 So
 ̇ ̇̂
̇ ̂
 Take the derivative of velocity,
  ̈  ̈̂
 ̇̂
 ̇
 What the derivative of unit tangential vector is the critical part.From the second figure since dß is very small, angle between e
t
and de
t
goes to 90 degrees.So direction of de
t
is e
n
direction. From arc length formula,
|̂
|
 Therefore
̂
 ̂
 
Divide all by dt we have

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