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Kinematics on Various Coordinate Systems

# Kinematics on Various Coordinate Systems

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08/25/2011

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Kinematics on various coordinate systems
Polar Coordinate System
From the figure we can see that,
̂̂̂̂
And using geometry,
̂
̂̂

̂
̂̂
Take the derivative wrt time of position vector
̇̇ ̇̂̇ ̇̂
Arrange all,
̇̇̂̂ ̇̂̂
Expression between first parentheses is unit radial vector and second is unit angular vector.So we have,
̇̇ ̂
 ̇̂
Go back to the formula;
̇̇̂̂ ̇̂̂
Take second derivative,

̈[̈̂̂̇ ̇̂̂][̇ ̇̂̂  ̈̂̂ ̇
̂̂]
Arrange all
̈̈̂̂̇ ̇̂̂  ̈̂̂ ̇
̂̂
And,
̈̈ ̇
̂̂̇ ̇  ̈̂̂
Substitute unit vectors,
̈̈ ̇
̂
̇ ̇  ̈̂

Cylindrical coordinate system
Proof is very similar to
that of polar coordinate’s
,
we can just add derivatives of z component.
̇̇ ̂
 ̇̂
̇ 

̈(̈ ̇
)̂
(̇ ̇  ̈)̂
̈ 

N-T coordinate system
Proof is a little different,Where point O is the origin, C is center of curvature.Now since differential lengths are very small, secants coincide arcs, thus

||
And using arc length formula,

||
Clearly seen that direction of ds is e
t
direction, so we can write
̂

So
̇ ̇̂
̇ ̂
Take the derivative of velocity,
̈  ̈̂
 ̇̂
̇
What the derivative of unit tangential vector is the critical part.From the second figure since dß is very small, angle between e
t
and de
t
goes to 90 degrees.So direction of de
t
is e
n
direction. From arc length formula,
|̂
|
Therefore
̂
 ̂

Divide all by dt we have

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