of about 3,620 MPa, and a relative densityof 1.44. The polymer owes its high strength to the many inter-chain bonds. These inter-molecular hydrogen bonds form between the carbonyl groups and N
centers. Additional strength is derived fromaromatic stacking interactions between adjacent strands. These interactions have a greater influence onKevlar than the van der Waals interactions and chain length that typically influence the properties of other synthetic polymers and fibers such as Dyneema. The presence of salts and certain other impurities, especially calcium, could interfere with the strand interactions and caution is used to avoid inclusion in its production.Kevlar's structure consists of relatively rigid molecules which tend to form mostly planar sheet-likestructures rather likesilkprotein.
Kevlar maintains its strength and resilience down to cryogenic temperatures (−196 °C); in fact, it isslightly stronger at low temperatures. At higher temperatures the tensile strength is immediately reducedby about 10–20%, and after some hours the strength progressively reduces further. For example at 160°C (320 °F) about 10% reduction in strength occurs after 500 hours. At 260 °C (500 °F) 50% strengthreduction occurs after 70 hours.
Kevlar is a well-known component of personal armor such ascombat helmets, Ballistic face masks, and Ballistic vests. ThePASGT helmet and vestused by United Statesmilitary forces from the 1980s into 2005 both have Kevlar as a key component, as do their replacements. Other military uses include bulletproof facemasks used by sentries and spall liners usedto protect the crews of armoured fighting vehicles. Related civilian applications include Emergency Service's protection gear if it involves high heat (e.g.,tackling a fire), and Kevlar body armor such as vests for police officers, security, and SWAT.
Kevlar is used to manufacture gloves, sleeves, jackets, chaps and other articles of clothing designed toprotect users from cuts, abrasions and heat. Kevlar based protective gear is often considerably lighter and thinner than equivalent gear made of more traditional materials.
It is used as an inner lining for somebicycle tires to prevent punctures, and due to its excellent heat resistance, is used for fire poi wicks. In table tennis,plies of Kevlar are added to custom ply blades, or paddles, in order to increase bounce and reduceweight. It is used for motorcycle safety clothing, especially in the areas featuring padding such as shoulders and elbows. It was also used as speedcontrol patches for certainSoap Shoesmodels.InKyudoor Japanese archery, it may be used as an alternative to more expensivehempfor bow strings. It is one of the main materials used for paraglider suspension lines.It is also used in the laces for the adidas F50adizero Prime football boot.It is even used in sails for high performance racing boats.