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Introduction

0.1 Gauge invariance

0.2 Reasons for gauge theories of strong and electroweak interactions

Electroweak theory

Classical ﬁelds, symmetries and their breaking

1.1 The action, equations of motion, symmetries and conservation laws

Equations of motion

Global symmetries

Space-time transformations

Examples

1.2 Classical ﬁeld equations

Scalar ﬁeld theory and spontaneous breaking of global symmetries

Spinor ﬁelds

1.3 Gauge ﬁeld theories

U(1) gauge symmetry

Non-abelian gauge symmetry

1.4 From classical to quantum ﬁelds (canonical quantization)

Scalar ﬁelds

The Feynman propagator

Symmetry transformations for quantum ﬁelds

1.5 Discrete symmetries

Space reﬂection

Summary and the CPT transformation

Problems

Path integral formulation of quantum ﬁeld theory

2.1 Path integrals in quantum mechanics

Transition matrix elements as path integrals

Matrix elements of position operators

2.2 Vacuum-to-vacuum transitions and the imaginary time formalism

General discussion

Harmonic oscillator

Perturbation theory and the generating functional

Wick’s theorem

An example: four-point Green’s function in λ 4

Momentum space

2.5 Path integrals for fermions; Grassmann algebra

Anticommuting c-numbers

Dirac propagator

Classiﬁcation of Green’s functions and generating functionals

Effective action

Spontaneous symmetry breaking and effective action

Effective potential

2.7 Green’s functions and the scattering operator

Feynman rules for Yang–Mills theories

3.1 The Faddeev–Popov determinant

Gauge invariance and the path integral

Faddeev–Popov determinant

Non-covariant gauges

3.2 Feynman rules for QCD

Calculation of the Faddeev–Popov determinant

Feynman rules

3.3 Unitarity, ghosts, Becchi–Rouet–Stora transformation

Unitarity and ghosts

BRS and anti-BRS symmetry

Introduction to the theory of renormalization

4.1 Physical sense of renormalization and its arbitrariness

Bare and ‘physical’ quantities

Counterterms and the renormalization conditions

Arbitrariness of renormalization

Final remarks

4.2 Classiﬁcation of the divergent diagrams

Structure of the UV divergences by momentum power counting

Classiﬁcation of divergent diagrams

Necessary counterterms

Feynman rules including counterterms

Calculation of Fig. 4.8(b)

Comments on analytic continuation to n =4 dimensions

Lowest order renormalization

4.4 Effective ﬁeld theories

Quantum electrodynamics

5.1 Ward–Takahashi identities

General derivation by the functional technique

General introduction

Vacuum polarization

Electron self-energy correction

Electron self-energy: IR singularities regularized by photon mass

On-shell vertex correction

5.3 Massless QED

Self-energy calculation

Vertex calculation

5.5 Coulomb scattering and the IR problem

Corrections of order α

IR problem to all orders in α

Renormalization group

6.1 Renormalization group equation (RGE)

Derivation of the RGE

Solving the RGE

Green’s functions for rescaled momenta

6.2 Calculation of the renormalization group functions β,γ,γm

6.3 Fixed points; effective coupling constant

Fixed points

Effective coupling constant

Renormalization scheme dependence

Effective α in QED

Gauge dependence of the β-function

Scale invariance and operator product expansion

7.1 Scale invariance

Scale transformations

Dilatation current

Conformal transformations

7.2 Broken scale invariance

Anomalous breaking of scale invariance

7.3 Dimensional transmutation

7.4 Operator product expansion (OPE)

Short distance expansion

Light-cone expansion

7.5 The relevance of the light-cone

Electron–positron annihilation

Deep inelastic hadron leptoproduction

Wilson coefﬁcients and moments of the structure function

7.6 Renormalization group and OPE

Renormalization of local composite operators

RGE for Wilson coefﬁcients

OPE beyond perturbation theory

7.7 OPE and effective ﬁeld theories

Quantum chromodynamics

8.1 General introduction

Renormalization and BRS invariance; counterterms

Asymptotic freedom of QCD

The Slavnov–Taylor identities

8.2 The background ﬁeld method

8.3 The structure of the vacuum in non-abelian gauge theories

Homotopy classes and topological vacua

Physical vacuum

-vacuum and the functional integral formalism

8.4 Perturbative QCD and hard collisions

Parton picture

Factorization theorem

Structure functions and Born approximation

8.6 Light-cone variables, light-like gauge

8.7 Beyond the one-loop approximation

Comments on the IR problem in QCD

Chiral symmetry; spontaneous symmetry breaking

9.1 Chiral symmetry of the QCD lagrangian

9.2 Hypothesis of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in strong
interactions

Goldstone bosons as eigenvectors of the mass matrix

General proof of Goldstone’s theorem

9.5 Patterns of spontaneous symmetry breaking

9.6 Goldstone bosons in QCD

Spontaneous and explicit global symmetry breaking

10.1 Internal symmetries and Ward identities

Preliminaries

Ward identities from the path integral

Comparison with the operator language

Renormalization of currents

10.2 Quark masses and chiral perturbation theory

Simple approach

Approach based on use of the Ward identity

10.3 Dashen’s theorems

Formulation of Dashen’s theorems

Dashen’s conditions and global symmetry broken by weak gauge interactions

Spectral function sum rules

Results

Higgs mechanism in gauge theories

11.1 Higgs mechanism

Dynamical breaking of gauge symmetry

Standard electroweak theory

12.1 The lagrangian

12.2 Electroweak currents and physical gauge boson ﬁelds

12.3 Fermion masses and mixing

12.4 Phenomenology of the tree level lagrangian

Effective four-fermion interactions

couplings

12.5 Beyond tree level

Renormalization and counterterms

Corrections to gauge boson propagators

Fermion self-energies

Running α(µ) in the electroweak theory

Muon decay in the one-loop approximation

12.6 Effective low energy theory for electroweak processes

QED as the effective low energy theory

12.7 Flavour changing neutral-current processes

QCD corrections to CP violation in the neutral kaon system

Chiral anomalies

13.1 Triangle diagram and different renormalization conditions

Calculation of the triangle amplitude

Different renormalization constraints for the triangle amplitude

Important comments

13.2 Some physical consequences of the chiral anomalies

Chiral invariance in spinor electrodynamics

Chiral anomaly for the axial U(1) current in QCD; UA(1) problem

Anomaly cancellation in the SU(2)×U(1) electroweak theory

Anomaly-free models

13.3 Anomalies and the path integral

Abelian anomaly

Non-abelian anomaly and gauge invariance

Consistent and covariant anomaly

13.4 Anomalies from the path integral in Euclidean space

Abelian anomaly with Dirac fermions

Non-abelian anomaly and chiral fermions

Effective lagrangians

14.1 Non-linear realization of the symmetry group

Non-linear σ-model

Effective lagrangian in the ξa(x) basis

Matrix representation for Goldstone boson ﬁelds

14.2 Effective lagrangians and anomalies

The Wess–Zumino term

Introduction to supersymmetry

15.1 Introduction

15.2 The supersymmetry algebra

15.3 Simple consequences of the supersymmetry algebra

15.4 Superspace and superﬁelds for N = 1 supersymmetry

Superspace

Superﬁelds

15.5 Supersymmetric lagrangian; Wess–Zumino model

15.6 Supersymmetry breaking

15.7 Supergraphs and the non-renormalization theorem

Parity

Time reversal

Charge conjugation

Feynman rules for the λ 4

Feynman rules for QED

Feynman rules for QCD

Dirac algebra in n dimensions

Feynman parameters

Feynman integrals in n dimensions

Gaussian integrals

Feynman integrals in light-like gauge n· A=0, n2

Convention for the logarithm

Spence functions:

Propagators of fermions

Propagators of the gauge bosons

Propagators of the Higgs and Goldstone bosons

Propagators of the ghost ﬁelds

Mixed propagators (only counterterms exist)

Gauge interactions of fermions

Yukawa interactions of fermions

Gauge interactions of the gauge bosons

Self-interactions of the Higgs and Goldstone bosons

Gauge interactions of the Higgs and Goldstone bosons

Gauge interactions of the ghost ﬁelds

Interactions of ghosts with Higgs and Goldstone bosons

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12/31/2012

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