Managers also saw other efficiency that could be achieved through work specialization.Employee skills of performing a task successfully increase through repetition. Less time isspent in changing tasks, in putting away one’s tools and equipment from a prior step in thework process, and in getting ready for another. Equally important, training for specializationis more efficient from the organization’s perspective. It’s easier and less costly to find andtrain workers to do specific and repetitive tasks. This is especially true of highlysophisticated and complex operations. For example could Cessna produce one Citation jet ayear if one person had to build the entire plane alone? Not likely! Finally, workspecializations increases efficiency and productivity by encouraging the creations of specialinventions and machinery.For such of the first half of the twentieth century, managers viewed work specialization asan unending source of increased productivity. And they were probably RIGHT. Becausespecialization was not widely practiced, its practiced its introduce almost always generatedhigher productivity. But by the 1960s there came increasing evidence that a good thing canbe carried too far. The point had been reached in some jobs at which the humandiseconomies from specialization – which surface as boredom, fatigue, stress, lowproductivity, poor quality, increased absenteeism and high turnover – more than offset theeconomic advantages. In such cases, productivity could be increased by enlarging ratherthan narrowing, the scope of job activities. In addition, a number of companies found thatby giving employees a variety of activities to do allowing team to do a whole and complete job, and putting them into teams with interchangeable skills, they often achievedsignificantly higher output with increased employer satisfaction.Most managers today see work specialization as neither obsolete nor an unending source of increased productivity rather managers recognize the economies it provides in certain typesof jobs and the problems it creates when it’s carried too far. You’ll find, for example, highwork specialization being used by McDonald to efficiently make and sell hamburgers andfries, and by medical specialists in most health maintenance organizations. On the otherhand, companies like Saturn Corporation have had success by broadening the scope of jobsand reducing specialization.