Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
13Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Work Specialization and Organizational Structure

Work Specialization and Organizational Structure

Ratings:

5.0

(2)
|Views: 4,683|Likes:
Published by lucidleagueltd
In organized structure how job tasks are formally divided, grouped and coordinated. There are six key elements that manages need to address when they design their organizations structure. These are: work specialization, departmentalization chain of command, span of control, centralization and decentralization and formalization. The following sections describe these six elements of structure.

Early in the twentieth century, Henry Ford became rich and famous by building automobiles on an assembly line. Every Ford worker was assigned a specific, repetitive task. For instances one person would just put on the right front wheel and someone else would install the right front door. By breaking jobs up into small standardized tasks, which could be performed over and over every 10 seconds while using employees who had relatively limited skills.
In organized structure how job tasks are formally divided, grouped and coordinated. There are six key elements that manages need to address when they design their organizations structure. These are: work specialization, departmentalization chain of command, span of control, centralization and decentralization and formalization. The following sections describe these six elements of structure.

Early in the twentieth century, Henry Ford became rich and famous by building automobiles on an assembly line. Every Ford worker was assigned a specific, repetitive task. For instances one person would just put on the right front wheel and someone else would install the right front door. By breaking jobs up into small standardized tasks, which could be performed over and over every 10 seconds while using employees who had relatively limited skills.

More info:

Published by: lucidleagueltd on Oct 01, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOC, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

12/27/2012

pdf

text

original

 
In organized structure how job tasks are formally divided, grouped and coordinated. Thereare six key elements that manages need to address when they design their organizationsstructure. These are: work specialization, departmentalization chain of command, span of control, centralization and decentralization and formalization. The following sectionsdescribe these six elements of structure.Early in the twentieth century, Henry Ford became rich and famous by building automobileson an assembly line. Every Ford worker was assigned a specific, repetitive task. Forinstances one person would just put on the right front wheel and someone else would installthe right front door. By breaking jobs up into small standardized tasks, which could beperformed over and over every 10 seconds while using employees who had relatively limitedskills.Ford demonstrated that work can be performed more efficiently if employee area allowed tospecialize. Today we use the term work specializations or division of labor, to describe thedegree to which activities in the organization are subdivided into separate jobs. The essenceof work specialization is that rather than an entire job being done by one individual it isbroken down into a number of steps with each step being completed by a separateindividual. In essence individuals specialize in doing part of an activity rather to the entireactivity.By the late 1940s most manufacturing jobs in industrialized countries were being done withhigh work specialization. Management saw this as a means to make the most efficient use inits employee skills. In most organizations some tasks require highly developed skills andothers can be performed by untrained workers. If all workers were engaged in each step of,say and organizations; manufacturing process al would have to have the skills necessary toperform both the most demanding and the least demanding jobs. The results would be that,except when performing the most skilled or highly complex tasks, employees would beworking below their skills levels. And because skilled workers are paid more than unskilledworkers and their wages tend to reflect their highest level of skill, it represents an inefficientuse of organizational resources to pay highly skilled workers to do easy tasks.
 
Managers also saw other efficiency that could be achieved through work specialization.Employee skills of performing a task successfully increase through repetition. Less time isspent in changing tasks, in putting away one’s tools and equipment from a prior step in thework process, and in getting ready for another. Equally important, training for specializationis more efficient from the organization’s perspective. It’s easier and less costly to find andtrain workers to do specific and repetitive tasks. This is especially true of highlysophisticated and complex operations. For example could Cessna produce one Citation jet ayear if one person had to build the entire plane alone? Not likely! Finally, workspecializations increases efficiency and productivity by encouraging the creations of specialinventions and machinery.For such of the first half of the twentieth century, managers viewed work specialization asan unending source of increased productivity. And they were probably RIGHT. Becausespecialization was not widely practiced, its practiced its introduce almost always generatedhigher productivity. But by the 1960s there came increasing evidence that a good thing canbe carried too far. The point had been reached in some jobs at which the humandiseconomies from specialization which surface as boredom, fatigue, stress, lowproductivity, poor quality, increased absenteeism and high turnover – more than offset theeconomic advantages. In such cases, productivity could be increased by enlarging ratherthan narrowing, the scope of job activities. In addition, a number of companies found thatby giving employees a variety of activities to do allowing team to do a whole and complete job, and putting them into teams with interchangeable skills, they often achievedsignificantly higher output with increased employer satisfaction.Most managers today see work specialization as neither obsolete nor an unending source of increased productivity rather managers recognize the economies it provides in certain typesof jobs and the problems it creates when it’s carried too far. You’ll find, for example, highwork specialization being used by McDonald to efficiently make and sell hamburgers andfries, and by medical specialists in most health maintenance organizations. On the otherhand, companies like Saturn Corporation have had success by broadening the scope of jobsand reducing specialization.

Activity (13)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred reads
1 thousand reads
Shubham Saxena liked this
Niharika Sharma liked this
PooWenFoo liked this
Semere Deribe liked this
Anil chaudhary liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->