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Chapter 7 - Gases, Liquids, And Solids

Chapter 7 - Gases, Liquids, And Solids

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Slide 7-2 Kinetic Molecular Theory of matterFive statements of the kinetic molecular theory of matter:
1. matter is ultimately composed of tiny particles (atoms, molecules or ions) that havedefinite and characteristic sizes that do not change
2. the particles are in constant random motion and therefore possesses kinetic energy.
3. the particles interact with one another through attractions and repulsions andtherefore possesses potential energy.
4. The kinetic energy of the particle increases as the temperature is increased
5. The particles in a system transfer energy to each other through elastic collisions.
In elastic collision total kinetic energy is conserved. In a inelastic collision some of theenergies are lost during collision. In real world every collision is inelastic.
Slide 7-3 Kinetic Molecular Theory of matterKinetic energy is energy that matter possess because the motion of the particle. It can beconsidered as disruptive force that tends to make the particles of a system increasinglyindependent of one another.
Potential energy is stored energy that matter possesses as a result of its position,condition or composition. Potential energy of attraction can be considered as cohesiveforce that tends to cause order and stability among the particles of the system.
Electrostatic attraction is an attraction or repulsion that occurs between charged particle.It is a form of potential energy
Slide 7-4 SolidsWhen liquids are cooled, their molecules come so close together and attractive forcesbetween them become so strong that random motion stops and a solid is formed.
A solid is a physical state characterized by a dominance of potential energy (cohesiveforces) over kinetic energy (disruptive forces).
Characteristic properties of solids
1. Definite volume and definite shape: the strong, cohesive forces hold the particles inessentially fixed positions, resulting in definite volume and definite shape
Slide 7-5 Solids2. high Density: the constituent particles of solids are located as close together aspossible (touching each other). Therefore a given volume contains large number of particles , resulting in high density.
3. Small compressibility: Because there is very little space between particles, increasedpressure cannot push the particles any closer together; therefore it has little effect on
solid’s volume.
4. Very small thermal expansion: An increased temperature increase the kinetic energy(disruptive forces), thereby causing more vibrational motion of the particles. Eachoccupies a slightly larger volume, and the result is a slight expansion of the solid. Thestrong cohesive forces prevent this effect from becoming very large.
CH 7 -Gases, Liquids, and Solids
Wednesday, November 14, 20074:38 PM
CHEM 1151 -Organic & Biological Chemistry.one (On 1-6-2008).one (On 6-5-2008) Page 1
 
Slide 7-6 LiquidsAs pressure increases in a real gas, its molecules come closer and closer with the resultthat attractions between molecules become important.
When distances decrease so that almost all molecules touch or almost touch, a gascondenses to a liquid.
A liquid is the physical state characterized by potential energy (cohesive forces) andkinetic energy (disruptive forces) of about the same magnitude.
Characteristic properties of liquids:
1. Definite volume and indefinite shape: The attractive forces are strong enough torestrict particles to movement within a definite volume. They are not strong enough,however to prevent the particles from moving over each other in a random manner thatis limited only by the container walls. Thus liquids have no definite shape except thatthey maintain a horizontal upper surface in container that are not completely filled
Slide -7-7 Liquids2. High Density: The particles in a liquid are not widely separated; they are still touchingone another, therefore a large number of particles in a given volume-a high density
3. Small compressibility: Because the particles in a liquid are still touching each other,there is a very little empty space. Therefore an increase in pressure cannot squeeze theparticles much closer together.
4. Small thermal expansion: Most of the particle movement in a liquid is vibrationalbecause a particle can move only a short distance before they collide with a neighbor.The increased particle velocity that accompanies a temperature increase results only inincreased vibrational amplitudes. The net effect is an increase in the effective volume aparticle occupies, which causes a slight volume increase in the liquid.
Slide 7-8 GasesA gas is the physical state characterized by a complete dominance of kinetic energy(disruptive forces) over potential energy (cohesive forces).
Properties of gases:
1. Indefinite volume and indefinite shape: the attractive forces between particles havebeen overcome by kinetic energy, and the particles are free to travel in all directions.Therefore , gas particles completely fill their container, and the shape of the gas is that of the container.
2. Low density: The particles of a gas are widely separated. There are relatively fewparticles in a given volume (compared with liquids and solids), which means little massper volume.
Slide 7-9 Gases3. Large Compressibility: particles in a gas are widely separated; essentially a gas ismostly empty space. When pressure is applied the particles are easily pushed closertogether, decreasing the amount of empty space and the volume of the gas.
4. Moderate thermal expansion: An increase in temperature means an increase in particlevelocity. The increased kinetic energy of the particles enables them to push backwhatever barrier is confining them into a given volume, and the volume increases. Size of the particle is not changed during expansion or compression, they move further apart orcloser. It is the distance between two particles that changes.
CHEM 1151 -Organic & Biological Chemistry.one (On 1-6-2008).one (On 6-5-2008) Page 2
 
Slide 7-10 GasesGas law is the generalization that describes in mathematical terms the relationshipsamong the amount, pressure, temperature and volume of a gas
most commonly measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg), atmospheres (atm),and torr.
1 atm = 760 mm Hg= 760 torr= 101,325 pascals= 28.96 in. Hg
=14.7psi (lb/in
2+
)
pressure is measured using a barometer (next screen).
Gas pressure: the pressure per unit area exerted against a surface.
Slide 7-11 Gas PressureFigure 6.2 A mercury barometer.
 
CHEM 1151 -Organic & Biological Chemistry.one (On 1-6-2008).one (On 6-5-2008) Page 3

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