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Naming Common Cations Anions

Naming Common Cations Anions

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07/16/2013

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Naming Common Cations/Anions: Forming IonicCompoundI. Atomic ions
Rule 1: The non-metals tend to gain electrons to form negativeions or
anions 
Rule 2: The metals tend to lose electrons to form positive ionsor
cations 
Rule 3: We can use the atom’s position relative to the noblegases (group 8A) to predictits most common charge state if the atom is in row 1,2, or 3 or is a main groupelement (groups 1A,2A, 3A, …8A). Rule 4: The transition metals form
cations
whose charges areless easy to predict. Sometransition metals form common ions of differentcharge states
.
 
 A. Cations of the main group
which follow rules 2 and 3 include
 
1. The alkaline family (Li, Na, K, …) of group 1A which form singly charged positive ions since by losing a single electron they achieve the electronconfiguration of a noble gas (in the preceding row)K(s) --> K 
+
+ e
-
(K 
+
has the same electronic configuration as Ar)
2. The alkaline earth family (Be, Mg, Ca, …) of group 2A which form doublycharged positive ions since by losing two electrons they achieve the electronconfiguration of the noble gas of the preceding row.Mg(s) --> Mg
2+
+ 2e
-
(compare Mg
2+
to Ne)
3. Al
3+
is the only really common ion of its family (group 3A)
  B. Most of the common transition metal cations 
(rule 4) are formed in the 2+ state.The list of BLB Table 2.4 on page 58 is reproduced here:Co
2+
, Cu
2+
, Fe
2+
, Mn
2+
, Hg
2+
, Hg
22+
, Ni
2+
, Pb
2+
, Sn
2+
Special cases:
copper forms Cu
1+
as well as Cu
2+
 
iron forms Fe
3+
as well Fe
2+
 
chromium forms Cr
3+
 
not 
Cr
2+
 
note that mercury forms two kinds of 2+ ions but that one of the ionsconsists of 2 Hg atoms bonded togetherNAMING:The atomic cations are named just like the neutral element followed bythe word
ion
: For example:K
+
is the potassium ionMULTIVALENT IONS: To distinguish the atomic ionsFe
3+ 
fromFe
2+ 
we namethemiron(III) ion
 
andiron(II) ion, respectively. Similarly forcopper(II) ionand copper(I) ion. In an older method (see page 57 of BLB), the ending-icis used for
 
the higher of two possible charge states and-ousfor the lower [this method iswidely used by practicing (read
older 
) chemists but is not encouraged because itcan’t handle an atom with more than 2 common charge states]
 
C. Anions-
These are the simplest negative ions, consisting of a single atom of agiven element in its most common negative charge state. We only consider the non-metals in this naming scheme. Use therootof the element’s name and add-ideto get the name of the
most common
anion.Examples are:(1
st
row): H
-
 
is thehydrideion (2
nd
row): N
3-
 
is thenitrideion ; O
2-
 
is theoxideion ; F
-
 
is thefluorideion (3
rd
row): P
3-
 
is thephosphideion; S
2-
 
is thesulf ideion; Cl
-
 
is thechlorideion
 
Molecular ions
These are generally made up of a collection of nonmetal atoms bonded together butthat are stable with a net charge.
  A.Cations
-- The only significant positive molecular ion is NH
4+
, the
ammoniumion.  B. Anions
1.
A few polyatomic anions have names that end in-idelike the atomic anions:
 
OH
-
ishydroxide, CN
-
iscyanide, O
2
 
2-
isperoxide

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