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70539_03a

70539_03a

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CALIBRATIONOFACIRCULARLOOPANTENNA
*
 A 
 YDIN
 YKAN
Tutzing, Germany
 A time-varying magnetic field at a defined area
S
can bedetermined with a calibrated circular loop connected tothe input of an appropriate measuring receiver (Fig. 5).There may be a passive or an active network between theloop and the output port. The measuring loop can alsoinclude a shielding over its circumference against anyperturbation of strong and unwanted electric fields.The shielding must be interrupted at a point on the loopcircumference.Generally in the far field the streamlines of magneticflux are uniform, but at near field, in the vicinity of thegenerator of a magnetic field, they depend on the sourceand its periphery. Figure 4 shows the streamlines of theelectromagnetic vectors generated by the transmittingloop L1. In the near field, the spatial distribution of themagnetic flux
B
¼
m
0
 H 
over the measuring loop area is notknown. Only the normal components of the magnetic flux,averaged over the closed-loop area, can induce a currentthrough the loop conductor. The measuring loop musthave a calibration (conversion) factor or set of factorsthat, at each frequency, expresses the relationship be-tween the field strength impinging on the loop and indi-cation of the measuring receiver. The calibration of ameasuring loop requires the generation of a well-definedstandard magnetic field on its effective receiving surface.Such a magnetic field is generated by a circular transmit-ting loop when a defined root-mean-square (RMS) currentis passed through its conductor. The unit of the generatedor measured magnetic field strength
av
is A/m (amperesper meter) and therefore is also an RMS value. The sub-script ‘‘av’’ strictly indicates the average value of the spa-tial distribution, not the average over a period of 
of aperiodic function. This statement is important for near-field calibration and measuring purposes. For far-fieldmeasurements the result indicates the RMS value of themagnitude of the uniform field. The traceability of thecalibration must be established for the calibration process,through linking the assigned value of any components tothe International System of Units (SI). In the following wediscuss the requirements for the near-zone calibration of ameasuring loop.
1. CALCULATION OF STANDARD MAGNETIC FIELDS
To generate a standard magnetic field, a transmitting loopL1 is positioned coaxial and plane-parallel at a separationdistance
d
from the loop L2 to be calibrated, as in Fig. 1.The analytical formula for the calculation of the averagemagnetic field strength
av
in A/m generated by a circularfilamentary loop at an axial distance
d
including the re-tardation due to the finite propagation time was obtainedearlier by Greene [1]. The average value of field strength
 H 
av
was derived from the retarded vector potential
A
j
as atangential component on the point
P
of the periphery of loop L2:
 H 
av
¼
Ir
1
p
r
2
p
0
 e
À
  j
b
 R
ð
j
Þ
 R
ð
j
Þ
cos
ð
j
Þ
d
j
ð
1a
Þ
 R
ð
j
Þ¼
 ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
d
2
þ
r
21
þ
r
22
À
2
r
1
r
2
cos
ð
j
Þ
ð
1b
Þ
In these equations for thin circular loops,
is the trans-mitting loop RMS current in amperes,
d
is the distancebetween the planes of the two coaxial loop antennas inmeters,
r
1
and
r
2
are filamentary loop radii of transmittingand receiving loops in meters, respectively,
b
is wave-length constant,
b
¼
2
p
 / 
l
, and
l
is wavelength in meters.Equations (1) give the exact results for the separationdistances even from
d
¼
0. For
d
¼
0 the radii of the loopsmust be
r
1
a
r
2
, otherwise the integral gives a singularityfor
j
¼
p
, because for
r
1
¼
r
2
the root in Eq. (1b) being zero.The use of any approximate formula (Eq. 25 in Ref. 1and Eqs. (2) in Ref. 2) is not suitable, because it imposesrestrictions on the range applicability for the approximateequations. Using the expressions of maximum magneticfield
max
would also not be suitable for purposes of near-field calibration purpose (see Fig. 2 in Ref. 2).Generally the Eqs. (1) can be determined by numericalintegration. To this end we separate the real andimaginary parts of the integrand using Euler’s formula
C
= ×
A
A
av 
AL1H
1
 
G0L2P
2
 
(
)
1
 
ds 
1
 T
E
2
 
2
 
+
     ∆
Figure 1.
Configuration of two circular loops.
*
This article is based on ‘‘Calibration of Circular Loop Antennas,’’by Aydin Aykan, which appeared in
IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
, Vol. 7, No. 2,
r
1998
IEEE
.
560
 
 e
À
  j
j
¼
cos(
j
)
À
  j
sin(
j
) and rewrite Eq. (1a) as
 H 
av
¼
Ir
1
p
r
2
ð
 F 
À
  jG
Þ ð
2a
Þ
where
 F 
¼
p
0
cos
ð
b
 R
ð
j
ÞÞ
 R
ð
j
Þ
cos
ð
j
Þ
d
j
ð
2b
Þ
G
¼
p
0
sin
ð
b
 R
ð
j
ÞÞ
 R
ð
j
Þ
cos
ð
j
Þ
d
j
ð
2c
Þ
and the magnitude of 
av
is then obtained as
 H 
av
j j¼
Ir
1
p
r
2
 ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
 F 
2
þ
G
2
ð
2d
Þ
It is possible to evaluate the integrals in Eqs. (2) numer-ically with an appropriate mathematics software on a per-sonal computer. Some mathematics software can directlycalculate the complex integral of Eqs. (1). Hence, some of the following equations are written in complex form forconvenience.
2. ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF CIRCULAR LOOPS2.1. Current Distribution around a Loop
The current distribution around the transmitting loop isnot constant in amplitude and in phase. A standing waveof current exists on the circumference of the loop. Thiscurrent distribution along the loop circumference is dis-cussed by Greene [1, pp. 323–324]. He has assumed theloop circumference 2
p
r
1
to be electrically smaller than thewavelength
l
and the loop current to be constant in phasearound the loop and the loop proper to be sufficiently loss-free. The single-turn thin loop wasconsidered as a circularbalanced transmission line fed at points
A
and
D
andshort-circuited at points
E
and
(Fig. 2).In an actual calibration setup the loop current
1
is specified at the terminals
A
and
D
. The averagecurrent was given as a function of input current
1
of the loop [2]:
 I 
av
¼
 I 
1
tan
ð
bp
r
1
Þ
bp
r
1
ð
3
Þ
The fraction of 
av
 / 
 I 
1
from Eq. (3) expressed in decibelsgives the conditions for determining of the highest fre-quency
and the radius of the loop
r
1
. The deviation of thisfractions is plotted in Fig. 3.The current
in Eq. (1a) must be substituted with
av
from Eq. (3). Since Eq. (3) is an approximate expression, itis recommended to keep the radius of the transmittingloop small enough for the highest frequency of calibrationto minimize the errors. For the dimensioning of the radiusof the receiving loop, these conditions are not very impor-tant, because the receiving loop is calibrated with an ac-curately defined standard magnetic field, but theresonance of the loop at higher frequencies must be takeninto account.
2.2. Circular Loops with Finite Conductor Radii
 A measuring loop can be constructed with one or morewindings. The form of the loop is chosen as a circle becauseof the simplicity of the theoretical calculation and calibra-tion. The loop conductor has a finite radius. At high fre-quencies the loop current flows on the conductor surfaceand shows the same proximity effect as two parallel, infi-nitely long cylindrical conductors. Figure 4 shows thecross section of two loops in intentionally exaggerated di-mensions. The streamlines of the electric field are ortho-gonal to the conductor surface of the transmitting loop L1and they intersect at points
A
and
A
0
. The total conductorcurrent is assumed to flow through a fictive thin filamen-tary loop with the radius
a
1
¼
 ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
r
21
À
 c
21
, where
a
1
¼
OA
¼
QP
¼
 ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
OQ
2
À
QP
2
. The streamlines of the mag-netic field are orthogonal to the streamlines of electricfield. The receiving loop L2 with the finite conductor
av 
DQQDA
L
o
L
av 
av 
L
o
2
= 0
2
= 0
L
A
1
1
1
1
1
2
=
max 
2
=
max 
2
=
max 
1
F
0
 
EEF
1
=
.
1
π.
1
Figure 2.
Current distribution on a circular loop.
1.510.5
   d   B
0
0.51 2510 2050100MHz
Figure3.
Deviation of 
av
 / 
 I 
1
for a loop radius0.1m as 20log(
 I 
av
 / 
 I 
)in decibels versus frequency.
CALIBRATION OF A CIRCULAR LOOP ANTENNA 561
 
radius
c
2
can encircle a part of magnetic field with its ef-fective circular radius
b
2
¼
r
2
À
 c
2
.The sum of the normal component of vectors
actingon the effective receive area
S
2
¼
p
b
22
induces a current inthe conductor of the receiving loop L2. This current flowsthrough the filamentary loop with the radius
a
2
. Theaverage magnetic field vector
av
is defined as the inte-gral of vectors
n
over effective receiving area
S
2
, dividedby
S
2
. The magnetic streamlines, which flow throughthe conductor and outside of loop L2, cannot induce acurrent through the conductor along the filamentary loop Ar, Ar
0
of L2. The equivalent filamentary loop radii
a
1
,
a
2
andeffectivecircular surfaceradii
b
1
,
b
2
canbe seendirectlyfrom Fig. 4.The equivalent thin current filament radius
a
1
of thetransmitting loop L1:
a
1
¼
 ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
r
21
À
 c
21
ð
4a
Þ
The equivalent thin current filament radius
a
2
of the re-ceiving loop L2 is
a
2
¼
 ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
r
22
À
 c
22
ð
4b
Þ
The radius
b
1
of the effective transmitting circular area of the transmitting loop L1 is
b
1
¼
r
1
À
 c
1
ð
4c
Þ
The radius
b
2
of the effective receiving circular area of thereceiving loop L2 is
b
2
¼
r
2
À
 c
2
ð
4d
Þ
2.3. Impedance of a Circular Loop
The impedance of a loop can be defined at chosen termi-nals
Q
,
D
as
Z
¼
 / 
 I 
1
(Fig. 2). Using Maxwell’s equationwith Faraday’s lawcurl(
 E
)
¼ À
  j
o
F
m
,we can write the lineintegrals of the electric intensity
E
along the loop conduc-tor through its cross section, along the path joiningpoints
D
,
Q
and the load impedance
Z
L
between theterminals
Q
,
 A
:
ð
 AEFD
Þ
 E
s
ds
þ
ð
 DQ
Þ
 E
s
ds
þ
ð
QA
Þ
 E
s
ds
¼ À
  j
o
F
m
ð
5a
Þ
Here
F
m
is the magnetic flux. The impressed emf (elec-tromotive force)
acting along the path joining points
D
and
Q
is equal and opposite to the second term of Eq. (5a):
¼ À
ð
 DQ
Þ
 E
s
ds
ð
5b
Þ
The impedance of the loop at the terminals
D
,
Q
can bewritten from Eqs. (5) dividing with
1
as
 Z
¼
 I 
1
¼
ð
 AEFD
Þ
 E
s
ds I 
1
þ
ð
QA
Þ
 E
s
ds I 
1
þ
j
o
F
m
 I 
1
¼
 Z
i
þ
 Z
L
þ
 Z
e
ð
6
Þ
where
Z
i
indicates the internal impedance of the loop con-ductor. Because of the skin effect, the internal impedanceat high frequencies is not resistive. For the calculation of the
Z
i
, we refer to Schelkunoff, [3, p. 263] and Ramo et al.[4, p. 185].
Z
L
is a known load or a source impedance onFig. 2.
Z
e
is the external impedance of the loop:
 Z
e
¼
  j
o
F
m
 I 
1
¼
  j
om
0
 H 
av
S I 
1
ð
7a
Þ
We can consider that the loop consists of two coaxial andcoplanar filamentary loops (i.e., separation distance
d
¼
0).The radii
a
1
and
b
1
are defined in Eqs. (4). The averagecurrent
av
flows through the filamentary loop with theradius
a
1
and generates an average magnetic fieldstrength
av
on the effective circular surface
S
1
¼
p
b
21
of the filamentary loop with the radius
b
1
. From Eqs. (1) and(3) we can rewrite Eq. (7a), for the loop L1:
 Z
e
¼
  j
tan
ð
bp
a
1
Þ
bp
a
1
m
0
o
a
1
b
1
p
0
 e
À
  j
b
 R
0
ð
j
Þ
 R
0
ð
j
Þ
cos
ð
j
Þ
d
j
ð
7b
Þ
 R
0
ð
j
Þ¼
 ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
a
21
þ
b
21
À
2
a
1
b
1
cos
ð
j
Þ
ð
7c
Þ
The real and imaginary parts of 
Z
e
are the radiationresistance and the external inductance of loops,
P
1
1
1
1
L1BQQr
L2
TBrAr
Q'OB'Br'T'Or
av 
Qr'Ar'
 
AA'
Figure 4.
Filamentary loops of two loops with finite conductorradii and orthogonal streamlines of the electromagnetic vectors,produced from transmitting loop L1.
562 CALIBRATION OF A CIRCULAR LOOP ANTENNA

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