This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

CANCEL

OK

Welcome to Scribd. Sign in or start your free trial to enjoy unlimited e-books, audiobooks & documents.Find out more

Download

Standard view

Full view

of .

Look up keyword or section

Like this

Share on social networks

6Activity

×

0 of .

Results for: No results containing your search query

P. 1

70539_05bRatings:

(0)|Views: 634|Likes: 5

Published by Dan Farris

See more

See less

https://www.scribd.com/doc/63335908/70539-05b

02/26/2013

text

original

additional work is needed to transform these experimen-tal devices into stable elements for standards applications. Also, standard ﬁelds need to be developed, in order to cal-ibrate these probes of the future.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. M. Kanda, Standard probes for electromagnetic ﬁeld mea-surement,

IEEE Trans. Anten. Propag

.

AP-41

:1349–1363(1993).2. M. Kanda, Analytical and numerical techniques for analyzingan electrically short dipolewitha nonlinear load,

IEEETrans. Anten. Propag

.

AP-28

:71–78 (1980).3. M. Kanda, A relatively short cylindrical broadband antennawith tapered resistive loading for picosecond pulse measure-ments,

IEEE Trans. Anten. Propag

.

AP-26

:439–447 (1978).4. M. Kanda and L. D. Driver, An isotropic electric-ﬁeld probewith tapered resistive dipoles for broadband use, 100kHz to18GHz,

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech

.

MTT-35

:124– 130 (1987).5. M. Kanda, An electromagnetic near-ﬁeld sensor for simulta-neous electric and magnetic ﬁeld measurements,

IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat

.

EMC-26

:102–110 (1984).6. L. D. Driver and M. Kanda, An optically linked electric andmagnetic ﬁeld sensor for Poynting vector measurements inthe near ﬁelds of a radiating source,

IEEE Trans. Elect-romagn. Compat

.

30

:495–503 (1988).7. M. Kanda and K. D. Masterson, Optically sensed EM-ﬁeldprobes for pulsed ﬁelds,

Proc. IEEE

80

:209–215 (1992).8. J. C. Tippet,

Model Characteristics of Rectangular CoaxialTransmissionLine

, Ph.D. dissertation, ElectricalEngineeringDept., Univ. Colorado, Boulder, 1978.9. S. A. Schelkunoff and H. T. Friis,

Antennas, Theory and Prac-tice

, Wiley, New York, 1952.10. F. M. Greene, The near-zone magnetic ﬁeld of a small circu-lar-loop antenna,

J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. U.S. C. Eng. In- strum

.

71C

(4) (1967).11. E. C. Jordan and K. G. Balmain,

Electromagnetic Waves and Radiating Systems

, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1968.

ELECTROMAGNETIC INVERSE PROBLEMS

A

NYONG

Q

ING

Y

EOW

B

ENG

G

AN

National University of SingaporeSingapore

1. INTRODUCTION1.1. Definition of Electromagnetic Inverse Problems

Electromagnetic inverse problems, also known as

electro-magnetic inverse scattering problems

, aim to recover in-formation on some inaccessible region from the scatteredelectromagnetic ﬁelds measured in the exterior region [1].This region (hereafter referred to as ‘‘scatterers’’) could behomogeneous or inhomogeneous, of any dimension, withor without electromagnetic scatterers embedded. The in-formation of interest is the location, shape, size, electricalproperties (penetrable or impenetrable), and electromag-netic constitutive parameters. Most of the electromagneticinverse problems can be considered as ‘‘active,’’ where aknown incident ﬁeld is artiﬁcially applied to illuminatethe inaccessible unknown scatterers to give rise to scat-tered ﬁelds, which is measured at some accessible area.There are some cases, however, such as passive remotesensing, in which the scattered electromagnetic ﬁeldsfrom the unknown scatterers are not due to such artiﬁ-cially applied incident electromagnetic ﬁelds. Usually, thescattered electromagnetic ﬁelds are measuredover limiteddomain of aspect angle, frequency, and polarization, andare contaminated by noise and measurement error.Electromagnetic inverse scattering is concerned withhow we can obtain a large part of information about theworld surrounding us. An everyday example of electro-magnetic inverse problems is human vision; from themeasurements of scattered light that reaches our retinas,our brains construct a detailed three-dimensional map of the world around us. This is a highly automated process,and most of us do not stop to reﬂect on how difﬁcult thisproblem is. In fact, a large part of the human brain isdevoted to such activities.It should be pointed out that this definition of electro-magnetic inverse problems is made in a narrow sense. Infact, all synthetic problems in electromagnetics, for exam-ple, the design of microwave ﬁlters and the synthesis of antennas, and many others, can be regarded as electro-magnetic inverse problems. However, we will stick to thisnarrow definition of the electromagnetic inverse problems,unless otherwise stated.Electromagnetic inverse problems and electromagneticscattering problems come in pairs. For a given electro-magnetic scattering problem, a priori information on thesize, shape, and material constituents of the scatterersand the incident electromagnetic ﬁelds is provided, andthe scattered ﬁeld is calculated for a specific area and fre-quency domain. The electromagnetic community has em-braced scattering problems with a warmth that is notgenerally extended to inverse problems. In fact, our train-ing on electromagnetics is dominated by direct problems(in the general sense), while inverse problems continue tobe regarded as very new and challenging research topics.Note that electromagnetic inverse problems belong to amuch wider class of inverse problems and are closely re-lated to inverse problems in acoustic and elastic waves. Itis also known that some techniques used in one ﬁeld areidentical, at least in principle, to those used in other, com-pletely different ﬁelds. These interdisciplinary applica-tions of the inversion techniques are drawing increasingattention. Hence, although we focus on electromagneticinverse problems here, other ﬁelds of inverse problemswill be touched on slightly where necessary.

1.2. Some Mathematical Challenges in ElectromagneticInverse Problems

Electromagnetic inverse scattering problems and the as-sociated electromagnetic scattering problems are highly

1200 ELECTROMAGNETIC INVERSE PROBLEMS

mathematical. This is an ideal area for applied mathema-ticians. Electromagnetic inverse problems provide a richsupply of challenging mathematical problems.

1.2.1. Electromagnetic Scattering.

Studying an electro-magnetic inverse problem always requires a solid knowl-edge of the corresponding direct scattering problem.Unfortunately, the study of electromagnetic scatteringproblems is very far from complete. For example, the cur-rent level of understanding on wave propagation in com-plex media and random media remains very poor.

1.2.2. Nonlinearity.

The scattering problem is linear inthe sense that for a known scatterer, the relationship be-tween the incident ﬁeld and scattered ﬁeld is linear. How-ever, for electromagnetic inverse problems, we areinterested in the relationship between the scatterer andits action on the incident ﬁelds. This relationship is in-herently nonlinear.

1.2.3. Ill-Posedness.

According to Hadamard [2], aproblem is well-posed if it has a unique solution that de-pends continuously on the given data. Problems that arenot well-posed are known as ill-posed. In general, electro-magnetic inverse problems are ill-posed. The ill-posednessof electromagnetic inverse problems comes from the in-complete and contaminated measurement data, and theexistence of a nonradiating source.For an ill-posed electromagnetic inverse problem, thefollowing questions must be addressed:

Existence

: Is there any solution?

Uniqueness

: Is the solution unique?

Stability

: Is the solution stable? In other words, dosmall perturbations of the measured scattered ﬁeldsalways result in small perturbation of the solution?

1.3. Applications of Electromagnetic Inverse Problems

Although the electromagnetic inverse problem is a rela-tively new area of applied mathematical research, it hasbeen increasingly used in scientific, military, medical, in-dustrial, agricultural, and many other civil areas. Sincethe mid-1980s we have witnessed an explosion in the ap-plications of electromagnetic inverse problems.

1.3.1. Scientific Applications.

Electromagnetic inverseproblems have been enormously inﬂuential in the devel-opment of natural sciences, with great advances in scienceand technology made possible through their solutions.Electromagnetic inverse problems could lead to the estab-lishment of physical laws via indirect observations. Theirsolutions provide us with a wealth of scientific informa-tion: the discovery of DNA structure through solving X-ray diffraction problems and the structure of the atom andits constituents from studies on the scattering phenomenawhen materials are bombarded with particles. Over theyears, electromagnetic inverse problems have played anincreasingly important role in many scientific areas, suchas archaeology, seismology, geophysics, optics, materialscience, and meteorology.

1.3.2. Military Applications.

The area of electromagnet-ic inverse problems was strongly stimulated by the greatsuccess in military applications during World War II,which witnessed the invention of radar and sonar for de-tection and identiﬁcation of both friendly and hostile ob- jects. As the world is not devoid of violence and war,military demands on electromagnetic inverse problemscontinue to increase. As an example, for people living incountries under the threat of landmines left over fromearlier wars, safe detection and removal of these land-mines using electromagnetic waves is a lifesaving method.On the other hand, increasingly powerful radar, spy sat-ellite networks, and missile defense systems are beingbuilt to defend against attacks from terrorists and hostilecountries.

1.3.3. Medical Applications.

So far, besides military ap-plications, medical imaging is one of the most successfulapplication areas of electromagnetic inverse problems. Infact, the X-ray radiography machine is used in almost ev-ery hospital to diagnosis tuberculosis and other anomaliesin the human body. In 1972, G. N. Hounsﬁeld introduced anew radiographic imaging procedure, X-ray computer-assisted tomography (CAT). A picture of the CAT appara-tus in a hospital is shown in Fig. 1. It is replacing theconventional and obsolete X-ray radiography machines inmany hospitals. More recently, even some CAT machineshave been replaced by more advanced nuclear magneticresonance imaging machines for more accurate diagnosis.

1.3.4. Industrial Applications.

The electromagnetic in-verse problems are of commercial value to the industries.Oil companies, for example, determine the location of oilthrough solving inverse scattering problems. A significantfraction of the computational workload is performed bythe oil companies. In fact, much of the recent resurgence

Figure 1.

CAT apparatus in a hospital.(

Source

:

http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Computer%20assisted%20tomography

.)

ELECTROMAGNETIC INVERSE PROBLEMS 1201

in the oil industry is due to improvements in mathemat-ical algorithms that allow scientists to ‘‘see’’ through saltlayers to detect the oil-bearing strata below.Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a highly commer-cialized solution for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) thatproduces a continuous cross-sectional proﬁle or record of subsurface features, without drilling, probing, or digging.The GPR for a shallow survey is shown in Fig. 2. Groundpenetrating radar proﬁles are used to evaluate the loca-tion and depth of buried objects such as pipes and cables,and to investigate the presence and continuity of naturalsubsurface conditions and features.The commercial aviation industry has also beneﬁtedsignificantly from solving electromagnetic inverse prob-lems. For example, it is now mandatory for passengers toreceive security check, including metal detection, beforeboarding. Other industries taking advantage of electro-magnetic inverse problems include nuclear energy, food,construction, and marine enterprises. For example, thenondestructive evaluation of steam generator tubes is amajor issue in the nuclear industry.

1.3.5. Agricultural Applications.

Electromagnetic in-verse problems are also very important to agriculture. InChina, a large amount of effort has been put into predict-ing the national crop harvest using remote sensing tech-niques and monitoring the coverage of plants withinChinese territory.

1.3.6. Other Civil Applications.

Electromagnetic in-verse problems are also applicable to many other civil ar-eas. For example, the environment can be monitored usingremote sensing techniques.

1.4. Some Outstanding Research Groups

Electromagnetic inverse problems have been one of themost challenging areas in electromagnetics. Manyresearch groups and researchers from both within andoutside the electromagnetic community have devotedtheir efforts to study the fundamental theory of inverseproblems, develop inversion algorithms for particularcases, produce real datasets to test the developed algo-rithms, develop prototypes for practical applications, andcommercialize the developed prototypes. Because of thelarge number of researchers and groups involved in thisarea, it is not possible to list all of them. However, specialtributes should be paid to the following researchers andorganizations for their outstanding work in this ﬁeld: In-stitut Fresnel (France), W. M. Boerner, R. E. Kleinman, K.J. Langenberg, Rome Laboratory (renamed as Air ForceResearch Laboratory in 1997), and A. N. Tikhonov.Their well-established contributions to this ﬁeld will behighlighted at the appropriate parts in this article.

1.5. Some Future Directions

The ﬁeld of electromagnetic inverse problems is a rela-tively new area with apparent potential for applications.However, many problems remain to be solved. Besides thetopics mentioned in this article, the following topics inelectromagnetic inverse problems also require special at-tention.

1.5.1. Three-Dimensional Electromagnetic Inverse Prob-lems.

Researchers in the ﬁeld of electromagnetic inverseproblems typically simplify their work by concentrating onlower-dimensional problems. Electromagnetic inverseproblems that have been extensively studied usually as-sume geometry of only one or two dimensions, with a half-space or layered medium. However, such an assumption isinsufﬁcient for many practical problems, leading to failureof the inversion algorithms to produce any meaningfulresults.Increasing attention has been devoted to three-dimen-sional electromagnetic inverse problems. Researchers areattempting to extend well-established lower-dimensionalinversion algorithms to three-dimensional cases, as wellas to develop new inversion algorithms focusing on three-dimensional electromagnetic inverse problems.

1.5.2. Electromagnetic Inverse Problems of ComplexScatterers.

Most of the existing inversion algorithms as-sume that the scatterers are simple, that is, isotropic andnondispersive. However, this assumption is not valid formany real scatterers, such as human brains and organs.

1.5.3. Electromagnetic Inverse Problems in ComplexMedia.

Another important issue is the electromagnetic in-verse problem of scatterers in complex media. Some ex-amples of complex media are soil, foliage, sea ice, seasurface, and the human body.

2. AN OVERVIEW OF RESEARCHES ONELECTROMAGNETIC INVERSE PROBLEMS

Because of the theoretical and practical significance of electromagnetic inverse problems, extensive studies havebeen performed on electromagnetic inverse problems.

Figure 2.

Shallow ground-penetrating radar surveys. (

Source

:

http://www.geomodel.com./

)

1202 ELECTROMAGNETIC INVERSE PROBLEMS

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.

1 hundred reads

1 thousand reads

Gyejae Lim liked this

Chris Blackburn liked this

hmalrizzo liked this

camellus! liked this

70539_12k

70539_12j

70539_12i

70539_12h

70539_12g

70539_12f

70539_12e

70539_12d

70539_12c

70539_12b

70539_12a

70539_11b

70539_11a

70539_10

70539_09c

70539_09a

70539_08c

70539_08b

70539_08a

70539_07b

70539_07a

70539_06f

70539_06e

70539_06d

70539_06c

- Read and print without ads
- Download to keep your version
- Edit, email or read offline

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

CANCEL

OK

You've been reading!

NO, THANKS

OK

scribd