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relative to the error necessitates much longer integrationtimes, leading to much slower adaptation. This problemcan be overcome, and the accuracy improved, by using acarrier suppression filter before performing the gradientcalculation.Chen et al. [10] proposed an alternative fast adaptivealgorithm to track the linearizer control parameters, sep-arating the rapidly varying but known factors (i.e., thesignal statistics) from the slowly varying environmentalfactors affecting the power amplifier model, resulting inswift and accurate convergence.Echeverr´
i
a et al. [11] demonstrated that very high lev-els of intermodulation suppression, over 60dB, could beachieved by tuning the control loops manually for individ-ual 10MHz subbands, over a total bandwidth of 19MHz(2.01–2.205GHz).
4.4. Hybrid Feedforward Amplifiers
It is possible to combine feedforward linearization withother linearization methods for improved overall results.For example, Horiguchi et al. [12] demonstrated a high-power 2.12GHz feedforward power amplifier in which theoverall operating efficiency was improved by 1% by theaddition of a simple predistortion linearizer to the input of the main amplifier. Another more radical hybrid feedforwardamplifier con-cept has been proposed by Randall et al. [13], in whichpart of the first loop is replaced by a DSP implementation.The main and reference signals are both generated byDSP before upconversion to the carrier frequency. Thesecond loop would operate conventionally. The advantageof DSP implementation is that phase and amplitudeequalization of both the main and reference signals canbe carried out and adapted as required in DSP software,rather than in RF analog components, allowing more ac-curate cancellation.
4.5. MMIC Integration
Integrating the whole feedforward amplifier onto a singleMMIC is an attractive proposition from the point of viewof miniaturization and repeatability at higher microwavefrequencies or even millimeter-wave frequencies. Achiev-ing such integration is, however, a major research chal-lenge, because of the difficulty of creating the necessaryhigh-isolation couplers, low-loss delay lines, and phaseshifters on a MMIC, along with high linearity, high effi-ciency, and accurately modeled amplifiers. Parkinson andPaul [14] have carried out initial studies of the possibilityof using a distributed amplifier structure as an active cou-pler within a MMIC feedforward amplifier, as a startingpoint for full MMIC integration.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. H. S. Black,
TranslatingSystem
, U.S. Patent1,686,792(1928).2. H. Seidel, A microwave feedforward experiment,
Bell Syst.Tech. J 
.
50
:2879–2916 (1971).3. V. Steel, D. Scott, and S. Ludvik, A 6–18GHz high dynamicrange MMICamplifier using a feedforward technique,
IEEE MTT-S Microwave Symp. Digest
, 1990, Vol. 2, pp. 911–914.4. K. Konstantinou and D. K. Paul, Analysis and design of broadband, high efficiency feedforward amplifiers,
IEEE MTT-S Microwave Symp. Digest
, 1996, Vol. 2, pp. 867–870.5. F. H. Raab, P. Asbeck, S. Cripps, P. B. Kenington, Z. B. Popo-vic, N. Pothecary, J. Sevic, and N. O. Sokal, Power amplifiersand transmitters for RFand microwave,
IEEE Trans. Micro-wave Theory Tech
.
MTT-50
(3):814–826 (2002).6. N. Pothecary,
Feedforward Linear Power Amplifiers
, ArtechHouse, Norwood, MA, 1999.7. K. Konstantinou, P. Gardner, and D. K. Paul, Optimisationmethod for feedforward linearisation of power amplifiers,
 Electron. Lett
.
29
(18):1633–1635 (1993).8. Y. K. Hau, V. Postoyalko, and J. R. Richardson, Design andcharacterization of a microwave feed-forward amplifier withimproved wide-band distortion cancellation,
IEEE MicrowaveTheory Tech
.
MTT-49
(1):200–203 (2001).9. J. K. Cavers, Adaptation behavior of a feedforward amplifierlinearizer,
IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol
.
44
(1):31–40 (1995).10. J. Chen, H. Tsai, and Y. Chen, Fast adaptive wide-band poweramplifier feed-forward linearizer,
IEEE Vehicular TechnologyConf 
., 1998, pp. 2167–2171.11. A. Echeverr´
i
a, L. Fan, S. Kanamaluru, and K. Chang, Fre-quency tunable feedforward amplifier for PCS applications,
 Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett
.
23
(4):218–221 (1999).12. K. Horiguchi, M. Nakayama, Y. Sakai, K. Totani, H. Senda, Y. Ikeda, and O. Ishida, A high efficiency feedforward ampli-fier with a series diode linearizer for cellular base stations,
 IEEE MTT-S Microwave Symp. Digest
, 2001, pp. 797–800.13. R. G. Randall, J. G. McRory, and R. H. Johnston, BroadbandDSP based feedforward amplifier lineariser,
Electron. Lett
.
38
(23):1470–1471 (2002).14. G. Parkinson and D. K. Paul, Non-reciprocal couplers usingdistributed amplifier topology,
Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett
.
38
(5):366–368 (2003).
FERRITE CIRCULATORS
E. K. N. Y 
UNG
D. X. W
 ANG
City University of Hong KongKowloon, Hong Kong, P.R. China
R. S. C
HEN
Nanjing University of Scienceand TechnologyNanjing, P.R. China
1. INTRODUCTION
The circulator is one of the elementary building blocks inradiofrequency and microwave circuits. It is used exten-sively in making basic devices for communications andradar systems. The latter are often used in broadband andhigh-power rating systems at microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies. It is, however, seldom found in consum-er products because some of its functions can be performed
1448 FERRITE CIRCULATORS
 
by simpler and cheaper alternatives. However, interest incirculators has been revitalized with the emergence of mobile communications. As an increasing number of usersare accustomed to the freedom provided by cellularphones, communication without the constraint of an at-tached wire is considered as natural as breathing air. Inaddressing the ever-increasing public demands, numerouswireless systems have been launched and more are com-ing. The most notable ones are wireless local area net-work, wireless local subscriber loops, and other high-bit-rate yet low-error-rate systems of data transmission.For these systems, the overlooked circulator enjoys a com-petitive edge as most active switches could not deliver theneeded power rating and bandwidth at a reasonable price,especially those in the ultra-high-frequency band andbeyond.For engineering students, the circulator is perhapsthe first multiport device covered in their foundationcourse on microwave engineering, and it might bethe first nonreciprocal passive device encountered [1,2].The importance of this three-port device in communica-tion systems can be explained by its functionality. Simplyput, waves entering one of the identical ports of a circu-lator, say, port 1, are totally transmitted to one of theoutput ports, port 2, with none to the remaining one,port 3. Similarly, those inputted to port 2 are passed onto port 3 without loss while port 1 is isolated. The cycleis completed as signals entering port 3 are outputtedto port 1 only. Schematically, a circulator is shown inFig. 1.The scattering matrix of the clockwise circulator shownin Fig. 1 is
½
S
Š
clockwise
¼
0 0 11 0 00 1 0
26643775
ð
1
Þ
Depending on the physical layout of a circuit and one’spoint of view, a circulator can also be counter-clockwiseand the relevant scattering matrix is
½
S
Š
counterclockwise
¼
0 1 00 0 11 0 0
26643775
ð
2
Þ
Extension of a three-port circulator to an
m
-port one ispossible, but it is skipped here because it introduces nonew concepts, yet the algebra involved is so tedious thatthe logic flow of this introductory article could be derailed.Note that, the scattering matrices given in (1) and (2) arevalid for lossless three-port circulators with perfectlymatched inputs and outputs. Modifications of the theoriesand practices presented in this article to low-loss
m
-portones with less than perfect matched input and outputports have been conducted in many pioneering studies[3,4]. Again, they are omitted here, and interested readersare referred to a comprehensive book [5].The passive traffic control in circulators is facilitated byan anisotropic element. Isotropy or anisotropy is an in-trinsic characteristic of all matters that finds its origin intheir molecular structures and atomic dipole moments of electric or magnetic nature [6]. In general, these dipolemoments are randomly oriented in the absence of an ex-ternal excitation; therefore the material on the whole hasa negligibly small net dipole moment. The scenario couldchange abruptly with the introduction of an applied staticelectric field as the electric dipole moments align them-selves with the impressed force and a net electric dipolemoment results. Similarly, a spontaneous magnetic dipolemoment is obtained by a biasing magnetic field. The dipolealignment is dependent on the strength of the excitationuntil all dipoles are almost perfectly oriented. The align-ment, in fact, depends on the molecular structure of thematerial, the ambient temperature, the initial settings,and other physical conditions. In general, the relationshipbetween the dipole alignment and the applied field is non-linear, and for some materials, it is anisotropic.The principles of circulator operation, basic theories of anisotropy, wave propagation in anisotropic materials,and circulator applications will be briefly presented inSections 2–4, followed by a general description of selectedcirculators in Section 5. The most popular ones, especiallywaveguide junction circulators, will be analyzed in depthin Section 6. A few concluding remarks will be presentedin Section 7.
2. ANISOTROPY AND ANISOTROPIC MATERIALS
In theory, both electrical and magnetic materials can beused to produce anisotropic effects in a circulator. Mag-netic anisotropy is, however, still used in practically allcirculators over a half-century since its invention. Hence,the discussion in this section focuses on magnetic anisot-ropy. Nevertheless, the potential of using electrically an-isotropic materials in circulators in the future cannot bedismissed. One of the major candidates for this is the uni-axial chiral material especially made for microwave fre-quencies. Although significant progress has been observed
213
Figure 1.
A schematic sketch of a circulator.
FERRITE CIRCULATORS 1449
 
in this area in recent years, the technologies at our dis-posal at this moment are far from satisfactory. Thus it hasbeen decided not to further investigate the use of electri-cally anisotropic materials in circulators until more ma-ture technologies are available. As this is only an introductory article on circulators, wewill not attempt to cover all circulators available on themarket. For similar reasons, only theories of anisotropydirectly relevant to the selected circulators discussed herewill be presented.
2.1. Spinning Electron in Free Space
The angular momentum of an electron in an atom or anion arises from two factors: its orbital motion around theatomic nucleus and its spin. Based on quantum mechan-ics, the total angular momentum of an electron in freespace is given by
 s
¼
1
 gh
2
p
ð
3
Þ
where
h
¼
6.626
Â
10
À
34
J/s is Planck’s constant and
g
isLande’s factor. If the angular momentum of an electron isdue solely to its orbital motion, then
g
¼
1. At the otherextreme, a
g
¼
2 factor is used to signify a spin-only mo-mentum. For most materials of interest in microwave sys-tems, it can be shown that
g
ranges from 1.98 to 2.01;therefore
g
¼
2 is a good approximation. Based on Bohr’smodel, the magnetic dipole moment of an electron is
m
¼
em
0
h
4
p
¼
9
:
27
Â
10
À
24
 A 
=
m
2
ð
4
Þ
where
e
¼
1.6
Â
10
À
19
C is the charge of an electron and
m
0
¼
9.1
Â
10
À
31
kg is its mass.Comparing (3) and (4), it is found that the ratio of themagnetic dipole moment of a spinning electron to its an-gular momentum is a constant, the so-called called gyro-magnetic ratio:
g
¼
m s
¼
em
0
¼
1
:
759
Â
10
11
C
=
kg
ð
5
Þ
 According to Hund’s rule,electrons in a shell would spreadout over the available states with spins in the same direc-tion until the shell is half-filled, and all subsequent addi-tions would have spins in the opposite direction. Thus, themagnetic dipole moment of an atom with a fully filled out-ermost shell such as found in the inert gases is zero. At theother extreme,the maximum dipole moment is obtained ina half-filled shell, and in the 10-state
d
shell it is 5.Returning to the familiar Newtonian mechanics, themagnetostatic torque acting on the dipole moment due toan impressed static magnetic field
H
DC
is
T
¼
m
0
m
Â
H
DC
ð
6
Þ
 As electrons are negatively charged, its angular momen-tum is opposite to its dipole moment:
m
¼ À
g
s
ð
7
Þ
Since torque is equal to the rate of change of angular mo-mentum, one arrives at
d
s
dt
¼
T
¼ À
m
0
g
s
Â
H
DC
ð
8
Þ
The equation of motion for a spinning electron is obtainedby substituting (7) into (8)
d
m
dt
¼ À
m
0
g
m
Â
H
DC
ð
9
Þ
Without loss of generality, the study can be furthered witha
^
 z z
-biased
H
DC
. Thus, the components of the vector equa-tion above are
dm
 x
dt
¼ À
m
0
g
m
 y
 H 
DC
ð
10
Þ
dm
 y
dt
¼
m
0
g
m
 x
 H 
DC
ð
11
Þ
dm
 z
dt
¼
0
ð
12
Þ
Differentiating (10) and (11) once more, two harmonicequations are derived
d
2
m
 x
dt
2
þ
o
20
m
 x
¼
0
ð
13
Þ
d
2
m
 x
dt
2
þ
o
20
m
 y
¼
0
ð
14
Þ
where
o
0
is the Larmor frequency of precession, given by
o
0
¼
m
0
g
 H 
DC
ð
15
Þ
 A solution to both (13) and (14) is
m
 x
¼
 A
cos
o
0
t
ð
16
Þ
m
 x
¼
 A
sin
o
0
t
ð
17
Þ
It is observed from (4) that the magnitude of 
m
is fixed;therefore one gets
m
2
¼
g
h
4
p
2
¼
m
2
 x
þ
m
2
 y
þ
m
2
 z
¼
 A
2
þ
m
2
 z
ð
18
Þ
In short,
m
would precess around the
^
 z z
axis with an angle
y
:sin
y
¼
Am
ð
19
Þ
Moreover, the projection of 
m
on the
x
 – 
 y
plane would tracea circular path with an angular frequency
o
0
as depictedin Fig. 2. For a standalone atom in free space,
m
couldprocess indefinitely. However, for an atom in a crystal, theelectron would experience numerous gravitational and
1450 FERRITE CIRCULATORS

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