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70539_12a

70539_12a

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MAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENT
M
 ANFRED
S
TECHER
Rhode & Schwarz GmbH &Co.KG
1. RELEVANCE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDMEASUREMENTS
The measurement of electromagnetic (EM) fields is rele-vant for various purposes: for scientific and technical ap-plications, for radio propagation, for electromagneticcompatibility (EMC) tests (i.e., testing of the immunityof electronic equipment to electromagnetic emissions aim-ing at the protection of radio reception from radio inter-ference), and for safety reasons (i.e., the protection of persons from excessive field strengths). For radio propa-gation and EMC measurements, below about 30MHz adistinction is made between electric and magnetic compo-nents of the EM field to be measured. Inthe area of humansafety, this distinction is continued to even higher fre-quencies.
2. QUANTITIES AND UNITS OF MAGNETIC FIELDS
Especially in the measurement of radio propagation and of radio interference, magnetic field measurements with loopantennas have traditionally been used to determine thereceived field intensity, which was quantified in units of the electric field strength, namely, in
m
 V/m, respectively,in dB(
m
 V/m). For radio propagation this can be justified forfar-field conditions where electric field strength
E
andmagnetic field strength
are related via the impedance
 Z
0
of the free space;
E
¼
 HZ
0
(see also antenna factor def-inition). Commercial EMC standards in Refs. 1 and 2specify radiated disturbance measurements below30MHz with a loop antenna; however, until 1990 mea-surement results and limits were expressed in dB(
m
 V/m).Since this measurement is done at less than the far-fielddistance from the equipment under test (EUT) over a widefrequency range, the use of units of the electric fieldstrength was difficult to justify. Therefore, the CISPR(the International Special Committee on Radio Interfer-ence) decided in 1990 to use units of the magnetic fieldstrength
m
 A/m, respectively, dB(
m
 A/m).Guidelines and standards for human exposure to EMfields specify the limits of electric and magnetic fields. Inthe low-frequency range (i.e., below 1MHz [3]), limits of the electric field strength are not proportional to limits of the magnetic field strength. Magnetic field limits in fre-quency ranges below 10kHz are frequently expressed inunits (T and G, for tesla and gauss) of the magnetic fluxdensity
B
despite the absence of magnetic material in hu-man tissue. Some standards specify magnetic field limitsin A/m instead of T (see Ref. 4 in contrast to Ref. 5). Foreasier comparison with other applications we thereforeconvert limits of the magnetic flux density to limitsof the magnetic field strength using
¼
 B
 / 
m
0
or1T
¼
10
7
=
4
p
 A 
=
m
%
0
:
796
.
10
6
 A 
=
m and 1G
¼
79.6A/m. At higher frequency ranges all standards specify limitsof the magnetic field strength in A/m. Above 1MHz thelimits of the magnetic field strength are related to limits of the electric field strength via the impedance of the freespace. Nevertheless both quantities, electric and magneticfields, have to be measured, since in the near field theexposition to either magnetic or electric field may bedangerous.
3. RANGE OF MAGNETIC FIELD LEVELS TO BECONSIDERED FOR MEASUREMENT
In order to show the extremely wide range of magneticfield levels to be measured, we give limits of some nationalor regional standards. In different frequency ranges andapplications magnetic field strength limits vary from asmuch as 10MA/m down to less than 1nA/m (i.e., over 16decades). This wide range offield strength levels will nor-mally not becovered by onemagnetic field meter. Differentapplications require either broadband or narrowbandequipment.On the high level end there are safety levels and limitsof the magnetic field strength for the protection of personsthat vary from as much as 4MA/m (i.e., 4
Â
10
6
 A/m cor-responding to the specified magnetic flux density of 5T innonferrous material) at frequencies below 0.1Hz, to lessthan 0.1A/m at frequencies above 10MHz (see Fig. 1)[3–6]. These limits of the magnetic field strength are de-rived from basic limits of the induced body current density(up to 10MHz), respectively, basic limits of the specificabsorption rate (SAR, above 10MHz). There are also
M
   d   B   (   A   /  m   )
120100806040200
20
301300.1101001.0110110100 MHzkHzHz
Figure 1.
Safety limits of the magnetic field strength derivedfrom the European Prestandard ENV 50166Parts 1 and 2:120dB(A/m) are equivalent to 1MA/m corresponding to 1.25T,0dB(A/m) are equivalent to 1A/m.
2400
 
derived limits of the electric field strength which are how-ever not of concern here.By using an approach different from the one of thesafety standards, the Swedish standard MPR II, whichhas become an international de-facto standard for video-display units (VDUs) without scientific proof, specifieslimits of the magnetic flux density in two frequency rang-es, which are bounded by lters: a limit of 40nT(
E
0.032A/m) in the range from 5Hz to 2kHz and a lim-it of 5nT (
E
0.004A/m) in the range from 2kHz to400kHz.On the low-level end there are limits for the protectionof radio reception and electromagnetic compatibility insome military standards (see Figs. 2 and 3).International and national monitoring of radio signalsand the measurement of propagation characteristics re-quire the measurement of low-level magnetic fields downto the order of –30dB(
m
 A/m): see also subsequent discus-sions and Refs. 7–9. For the protection of radio reception,international, regional (e.g., European) and national ra-diated emission limits and measurement procedures havebeen standardized for industrial, scientific, medical (ISM)and other equipment [1,2,10–12]. An example is given inFig. 4.Radiated emission limits of fluorescent lamps andluminaires are specified in a dB(
m
 A) using a large-loop-antenna system (LAS) [10]. For further information, seethe text below.
4. EQUIPMENT FOR MAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENTS4.1. Magnetic Field Sensors Others than Loop Antennas
 An excellent overview of magnetic field sensors other thanloop antennas is given in Ref. 13. Table 1 lists the differenttypes offield sensors that are exploiting different physicalprinciples of operation.
4.2. Magnetic Field Strength Meters with Loop Antennas
Especially for the measurement of radiowave propagationand radiated electromagnetic disturbance pickup devices,the antennas become larger and therefore are used sepa-rately from the indicating instrument (see Fig. 5). The in-strument is a selective voltmeter, a measuring receiver, ora spectrum analyzer. The sensitivity pattern of a loop an-tenna can be represented by the surface of two spheres(see Figs. 6 and 7). In order to determine the maximumfield strength, the loop antenna has to be turned into thedirection of maximum sensitivity.To obtain an isotropic field sensor, three loops have tobe combined in such a way that the three orthogonal com-ponents of the magnetic field
 x
,
 y
, and
 z
are combinedto fulfill the equation
302520151050
5
10
15
200.1511030
   d   B   A   /  m
    
MHz
Figure 4.
Radiated emission limits for navigational receiversaccording to draft revision IEC 945 (IEC 80/124/FDIS), originallygiven in dB(
m
 V/m), for the purpose of this article converted intodB(
m
 A/m).
1601401201008060401700.030.1110100
   d   B   A   /  m
    
kHz
Figure 2.
Magnetic field strength limits derived from U.S. MIL-STD-461D RE101 (Navy only) [7]. These limits are originally giv-en in dB(pT) (decibels above 1pT). The measurement procedurerequires a 36-turn shielded loop antenna with a diameter of 13.3cm. Measurement distance is 7cm for the upper limit and50cm for the lower limit.
6040200
20
40
60
700.010.111030
   d   B   A   /  m
    
MHz
Figure 3.
Narrowband emission limits of the magnetic fieldstrength derived from the German military standard VG95343Part 22 [8]. This standard gives the limits of H
Á
Z
0
indB(
m
 V/m) of four equipment classes, the emissions have to bemeasured with a loop antenna calibrated in dB(
m
 V/m) in the nearfield of the equipment under test (EUT). Therefore, the limitshave been converted into dB(
m
 A/m). The lower limits is Class 1,the upper is Class 4.
MAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENT 2401
 
 H 
¼
 ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
 H 
2
 x
þ
 H 
2
 y
þ
 H 
2
 z
Isotropic performance is, however, only a reality in broad-band magnetic field sensors, where each component is de-tected with a square-law detector and combinedsubsequently. For the measurement and detection of ra-dio signals isotropic antennas are not available. Hybridsmay be used for limited frequency ranges to achieve anomnidirectional azimuthal (not isotropic) pickup.
4.2.1. Antenna Factor Definition.
The output voltage
of a loop antenna is proportional to the average magneticfield strength
perpendicular to the loop area. If the an-tenna output is connected to a measuring receiver or aspectrum analyzer, the set consisting of antenna and re-ceiver forms a selective magnetometer.The proportionality constant is the antenna factor
 H 
for the average magnetic field strength
:
 K 
 H 
¼
inm1 V 
¼
1
O
.
m
ð
1a
Þ
Table 1. Overview of Different Magnetic Field Sensors, their Underlying Physical Effects, their Applicable Level, andFrequency Ranges from Ref. 13
a
Type Principles of Operation Level of Operation Frequency RangeSearch coil magnetometer Faradays law of induction 10
 –6
 –10
9
 A/m 1Hz1MHzFlux gate magnetometer Induction law with hysteresis of mag-netic material10
 –4
 –10
4
 A/m DC10kHzOptically pumped magne-tometerZeeman effect: splitting of spectrallines of atoms10
 –6
 –10
2
 A/m DCNuclear precession mag-netometerResponse of nuclei of atoms to a mag-netic field10
 –5
 –10
2
 A/m DC (upper frequency limited bygating frequency of hydrocar-bon fluid)SQUID magnetometer Superconducting quantum interfer-ence device10
 –8
 –10
 –2
 A/m; speciality:differential field mea-surementsDCHall effect sensor Hall effect 10
 –1
 –10
5
 A/m DC1MHzMagnetoresistive magne-tometerMagnetoresistive effect 10
 –4
 –10
4
 A/m DC1GHzMagnetodiode Semiconductordiodewithundoptedsil-icon10
 –2
 –10
3
 A/m DC1MHzMagnetotransistor Hall and Suhl effects 10
 –3
 –10
3
 A/m DC1MHzFiberoptic magnetometer Mach–Zehnder interferometer 10
 –7
 –10
3
 A/m DC60kHzMagnetooptical sensor Faraday polarization effect 10
2
 –10
9
 A/m DC1GHz
a
To facilitate comparison with values given in text, the values from Ref. 13 have been converted from gauss to A/m.
MeasuringreceiverNetwork
L
i
X
av 
 
i
Figure 5.
Magnetic field strength measuring loop. The networkmay consist of a passive or active circuit.
P
 
 
 
Figure6.
Crosssectionofaloop antennasensitivitypattern. Thearrow length
a
shows the indicated field strength at an angle
a
which is a fraction of the original field strength
, with
a
¼
 H 
cos
a
.
Figure 7.
Direction of the field vectors (
 H 
,
E
and
P
) under far-field conditions.
2402 MAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENT

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