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Statistics Firstfive

# Statistics Firstfive

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Published by: Zetta Datta on Aug 28, 2011

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08/08/2013

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An Introduction toStatistics
Keone Hon
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Contents
1.1 Descriptive vs. Inferential. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.2 Means, Medians, and Modes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.3 Variability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41.4 Linear Transformations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51.5 Position. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61.6 Dispersion Percentages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.1 Histograms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92.1.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92.1.2 Medians, Modes, and Means Revisited. . . . . . . . . . . 102.1.3 z-Scores and Percentile Ranks Revisited. . . . . . . . . . 112.2 Stem and Leaf Displays. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112.3 Five Number Summaries and Box and Whisker Displays. . . . . 12
3.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133.2 Random Variables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163.2.1 Deﬁnition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163.2.2 Expected Value. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173.2.3 Variance and Standard Deviation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173.2.4 “Shortcuts” for Binomial Random Variables. . . . . . . . 181

4.1 Binomial Distributions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194.2 Poisson Distributions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214.2.1 Deﬁnition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214.2.2 As an Approximation to the Binomial. . . . . . . . . . . 224.3 Normal Distributions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234.3.1 Deﬁnition and Properties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234.3.2 Table of Normal Curve Areas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234.3.3 Working Backwards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254.3.4 As an Approximation to the Binomial. . . . . . . . . . . 26
5.1 The Distribution of Sample Means. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285.2 Conﬁdence Interval Estimatess. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295.3 Choosing a Sample Size. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305.4 The Hypothesis Test. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315.5 More on Errors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325.5.1 Type I Errors and Alpha-Risks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325.5.2 Type II Errors and Beta-Risks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345.6 Comparing Two Means. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355.6.1 Conﬁdence Interval Estimates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352

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