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Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy

Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy

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Published by Kei Anne

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Published by: Kei Anne on Aug 28, 2011
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CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTIONCOMPARATIVE VERTEBRATE ANATOMY
y
 
Descriptive morphology
y
 
Fun
ctio
na
l morphology
y
 
O
n
toge
n
esis
y
 
P
hyloge
n
esis
PROTOCHORDATES
y
 
N
o vertebr
a
l col
u
m
n
b
u
t sh
a
re vertebr
a
te embryo
n
ic fe
a
t
u
res
o
 
N
otochord
o
 
Dors
a
l hollow ce
n
tr
a
l
n
ervo
u
s system
o
 
P
h
a
ry
nx
with p
a
ired po
u
ches
an
d clefts i
n
the embryo st
a
ge
o
 
Ki
n
gdom A
n
im
a
li
a
 
P
hyl
u
m Chord
a
t
a
 S
u
bphyl
u
m Urochord
a
t
a
 S
u
bphly
u
m Ceph
a
lochord
a
t
a
 S
u
bphyl
u
m Vertebr
a
t
a
(Cr
an
i
a
t
a)
 *Chord
a
tes
a
re
an
im
a
ls with
n
otochord i
n
the embryo st
a
ge.Vertebr
a
tes
a
re Chord
a
tes with Vertebr
a
e
VERTEBRATE BODY
:
GENERAL PLAN
 
y
 
All vertebr
a
tes sh
a
re
o
 
Simil
a
r p
a
tter
n
s of embryo
n
ic developme
n
t
o
 
P
rimitive str
u
ct
u
r
a
l
an
d developme
n
t
a
l fe
a
t
u
res
y
 
Some fe
a
t
u
res
a
ltered by ge
n
etic ch
an
ge overtime res
u
lts to
ana
tomic diversity
y
 
R
egio
na
l Differe
n
ti
a
tio
n
 
o
 
Head
 
Speci
a
l se
n
se org
an
s for mo
n
itori
n
g e
x
ter
na
l e
n
viro
n
me
n
t
 
Brain
- l
a
rge e
n
o
u
gh to receive
an
d process i
n
fo. ; providestim
u
li to body m
u
sc
u
l
a
t
u
re
 
J
aws
a
cq
u
iri
n
g, ret
a
i
n
i
n
g
an
d m
a
cer
a
ti
n
g food
 
Gills
 i
n
fishes for respir
a
tio
n
 
 
CEPHALIZATION
 l
a
rger br
a
i
n
c
a
ses become mov
a
blei
n
depe
n
de
n
t of the tr
unk
 
o
 
Trunk
 
Coelom
 c
a
vity ho
u
ses viscer
a
 
 
Body
 
wall
 m
u
scle, vertebr
a
l col
u
m
n
 
an
d ribs
 
Neck
na
rrow e
x
te
n
sio
n
of tr
unk
; l
a
c
k
s coelom ; co
n
sistsof vertebr
a
e, m
u
scles, spi
na
l cords,
n
erves
an
d elo
n
g
a
tedt
u
bes ; co
nn
ects he
a
d to tr
unk
DUH!
o
 
Post
 
anal
 
tail
 
 
Comme
n
ces
a
t
anu
s or ve
n
t he
n
ce  post
ana
l
 
C
au
d
a
l co
n
ti
nua
tio
n
of body w
a
ll m
u
scles,
ax
i
a
l s
k
eleto
n
,
n
erves
an
d blood vessels
 
Alw
a
ys prese
n
t d
u
ri
n
g embryo
n
ic st
a
ge
 
Amphibi
an
s h
a
ve t
a
ils; some Aves h
a
ve red
u
ced t
a
ils c
a
lled
NUBBIN
; h
u
m
an
embryos h
a
ve vestigi
a
l post
ana
l t
a
ilAd
u
lt h
u
m
an
s h
a
ve the
COCCYX
 
o
 
Paired
 
pectoral
 
and
 
pelvic
 
appendages
 
 
S
u
pported by i
n
ter
na
l s
k
eleto
n
 
 
O
per
a
ted by m
u
scles
 
Some
a
re vestigi
a
l  h
a
ve bee
n
completely lost
BILATERAL
 
SYMMETRY
 
AND
 
ANATOMIC
 
PLANES
 
y
 
3
pri
n
cip
a
l body
ax
es
o
 
L
o
n
git
u
di
na
l
 
Superior
a
bove
 
Inferior
 below
o
 
Dorsove
n
tr
a
l
 
Dorsal
 b
a
c
k
 
 
Ventral
 where mo
u
th is loc
a
ted
o
 
L
eft-right
ax
is
 
T
ermi
na
tes i
n
ide
n
tic
a
l str
u
ct
u
res
a
t e
a
ch e
n
d
METAMERISM
y
 
Seri
a
l repetitio
n
of body str
u
ct
u
res i
n
the lo
n
git
u
di
na
l
ax
is
y
 
See
n
i
n
vertebr
a
te embryos
an
d is ret
a
i
n
ed i
n
most
a
d
u
lts
y
 
M
u
scle segme
n
ts
a
re reflectio
n
s of embryo
n
ic met
a
merism
y
 
Seri
a
l
a
rr
an
geme
n
t of 
o
 
Vertebr
a
te
o
 
R
ibs
o
 
Spi
na
l
n
erves
o
 
E
mbryo
n
ic
k
id
n
ey t
u
b
u
les
o
 
Segme
n
t
a
l
a
rteries
an
d vei
n
s
VERTEBRATE CHARACHTERISTICS
:
THE
 
BIG
 
FOUR
1.
 
& 2.
N
otochord & Vertebr
a
l Col
u
m
n
 
y
 
Notochord
o
 
1
st
s
k
elet
a
l str
u
ct
u
re to
a
ppe
a
r i
n
embryo
o
 
At pe
ak
; rod of livi
n
g cells loc
a
ted ve
n
tr
a
l to C
N
S
an
ddors
a
l to
a
lime
n
t
a
ry c
ana
l
o
 
E
x
te
n
ds from midbr
a
i
n
to tip of t
a
il
o
 
P
a
rt
n
e
a
r he
a
d i
n
corpor
a
ted to floor of s
ku
ll e
x
cept
a
g
na
th
an
s
o
 
P
a
rt i
n
the tr
unk
 
an
d t
a
il s
u
rro
un
ded by vertebr
a
e
 
o
 
F
A
TE
I
N
ADU
LT
V
ERTEBR
A
E
S
 
 
F
ish, Urodeles
an
d
P
rimitive
L
iz
a
rds  e
x
ists
a
t le
n
gth of tr
unk
 
an
d t
a
il; co
n
stricted w/i
n
e
a
ch ce
n
tr
u
m
 
 
M
oder
n
 
R
eptiles, Aves  l
a
c
k
s vestige
a
s it develops
 
 
M
a
mm
a
ls  red
u
ced to
vestige
w/i
n
i
n
vertebr
a
l dis
k
sth
a
t sep
a
r
a
te s
u
ccessive ce
n
tr
a
; vestige co
n
sists of p
u
lpy
nu
cle
u
s, soft spheric
a
l m
a
ss of co
nn
ective tiss
u
e.
 
 
Ag
na
th
an
s  grows
a
lo
n
g w/
an
im
a
l
an
d p
a
ired
lateralneural cartilages
become perched o
n
 
n
otochord l
a
ter
a
lto spi
na
l shord; c
a
rtil
a
ges
a
re li
k
e
n
e
u
r
a
l
a
rches b
u
t
unkn
ow
n
if it is primitive, vestigi
a
l or e
n
tirely differe
n
t
 
o
 
Notochord
 
Sheath
 
W
he
n
 
n
otochord persists
a
s
an
import
an
t p
a
rt od
a
d
u
lt
ax
i
a
l s
k
eleto
n
it t
u
r
n
s i
n
to
a
stro
n
g o
u
ter el
a
stic
an
di
nn
er fibro
u
s she
a
th
 
y
 
Vertebral column
 
o
 
Vertebrae
- C
a
rtil
a
gi
n
o
u
s or bo
n
y rigid s
u
pport
 
Centrum
 deposited
a
ro
un
d
n
otochord
 
Neural
 
Arch
 forms over spi
na
l cord
 
V
a
rio
u
s
processes
 
 
Hemal
 
arch
n
e
a
r t
a
i; s
u
rro
un
ds c
au
d
a
l
a
rtery
an
dvei
n
s
 
3
.
 
P
h
a
ry
n
ge
a
l Slits
y
 
Pharynx
o
 
R
egio
n
of the
a
lime
n
t
a
ry c
ana
l showi
n
g ph
a
ry
n
ge
a
lpo
u
ches i
n
the embryo
y
 
Pharyngeal
 
Slits
 
o
 
P
o
u
ches r
u
pt
u
re to the e
x
terior to form slits
o
 
M
a
y be perm
an
e
n
t,
a
d
u
lt ph
a
ry
nx
p
a
rt of 
a
lime
n
t
a
ry c
ana
lwith slits 
a
d
u
lts th
a
t live i
n
w
a
ter
an
d bre
a
the thro
u
ghgills
o
 
M
a
y be tempor
a
ry,
a
d
u
lt ph
a
ry
nx
is p
a
rt of the
a
lime
n
t
a
ryc
ana
l co
nn
ecti
n
g or
a
l c
a
vity
an
d esoph
a
g
u
s  if the
an
im
a
lis goi
n
g to live o
n
l
an
d
y
 
Pharyngeal
 
Pouches
 
o
 
Arises
a
s divertic
u
l
a
of the ph
a
ry
n
ge
a
l e
n
doderm
o
 
I
n
v
a
de the ph
a
ry
n
ge
a
l w
a
ll & grow tow
a
rds the s
u
rf 
a
ce
y
 
Ectodermal
 
Groove
 
o
 
Sim
u
lt
an
eo
u
sly grows w/ ph
a
ry
n
ge
a
l po
u
ches
o
 
G
rows tow
a
rd e
a
ch po
u
ch
y
 
Branchial
 
Plate
 
o
 
Sep
a
r
a
tes groove from
o
 
W
he
n
r
u
pt
u
red
a
ph
a
ry
n
ge
a
l slit is formed
a
s
a
p
a
ss
a
gew
a
y betwee
n
the ph
a
ry
n
ge
a
l l
u
me
n
 
an
d the e
x
terior
y
 
Pharyngeal
 
Arches
 
o
 
Col
u
m
n
of tiss
u
e th
a
t sep
a
r
a
tes ph
a
ry
n
ge
a
l po
u
ch or slit
o
 
L
oc
a
ted betwee
n
2 s
u
ccessive ph
a
ry
n
ge
a
l po
u
ches or slits, i
n
 fro
n
t of the 1
st
 
an
d immedi
a
tely behi
n
d the l
a
st
o
 
Covered b the i
n
teg
u
me
n
t
an
d li
n
ed i
n
ter
na
lly by e
n
doderm
o
 
L
ost whe
n
slits close or grooves dis
a
ppe
a
r
o
 
Co
n
t
a
i
n
s 4 b
a
sic compo
n
e
n
ts ,fo
un
d i
n
fro
n
t of 1
st
po
u
ch
an
ddirectly behi
n
d l
a
st po
u
ch, or
BLASTEMAS
from which thesecompo
n
e
n
ts develop1.
 
S
u
pportive
skeletal elements
 2.
 
Striated muscles
 oper
a
te the
a
rch
3
.
 
Branches of 5
th
, 7
th
, 9
th
or 10
th
cranial nerves
i
nn
erv
a
te m
u
scles
an
d provide se
n
sory i
n
p
u
t to C
N
S4.
 
Aortic arch
 co
nn
ects ve
n
tr
a
l
an
d dors
a
l
a
ort
a
s
o
 
Visceral skeleton
 s
k
eleto
n
of 
P
h
a
ry
n
ge
a
l
a
rches
o
 
Branchiomeric muscle
 primitive m
u
sc
u
l
a
t
u
re of gills
o
 
1
st
or Mandibular arch
 
u
pper
an
d lower j
a
ws
an
d
a
ssoci
a
ted m
u
scle,
n
erves
an
d vessels
o
 
2
nd
or Hyoid arch
  behi
n
d m
an
dib
u
l
a
r
a
rch
o
 
Branchial arches
 
a
rches th
a
t s
u
pport gills
y
 
F
A
TE
I
N
ADU
LT
V
ERTER
A
TE
S
o
 
P
erm
an
e
n
t  m
a
ri
n
e
 
J
a
wed m
a
ri
n
e vertebr
a
tes, primitive sh
a
r
k
s  8 slits
an
dpo
u
ches
 
Ag
na
th
an
s  15 po
u
ches
an
d slits
 
Urodeles ret
a
i
n
1-
3
slits
o
 
T
empor
a
ry  terrestri
a
l,
a
eri
a
l
 
F
rog
y
 
E
mbryo  6 po
u
ches
y
 
T
a
dpoles  4 gives rise to slits
 
R
eptiles, Aves,
M
a
mm
a
ls
y
 
N
o gills develop i
n
po
u
ches
an
d slits
a
re tr
an
sitory
y
 
Chic
k
s  5 po
u
ches develop, 1
st
 
3
r
u
pt
u
re to the e
x
teriorthe
n
close
a
g
a
i
n
 
y
 
M
a
mm
a
ls  o
n
ly 1-2 of m
an
y
an
terior po
u
ches m
a
yr
u
pt
u
re
y
 
Cervic
a
l
F
ist
u
l
a
 f 
a
il
u
re of cervic
a
l si
nu
s (
3
rs
an
d 4
th
 slits
)
to close
 
T
etr
a
pods
y
 
P
o
u
ches r
a
rely gives rise to perm
an
e
n
t slits
y
 
1
st
po
u
ch 
au
ditory t
u
be
an
d middle e
a
r c
a
vity
y
 
2
n
d
 po
u
ch of the p
a
l
a
ti
n
e to
n
sil of m
a
mm
a
ls
y
 
W
a
lls of sever
a
l po
u
ches gives rise to e
n
docri
n
e tiss
u
e i
n
 
a
ll vertebr
a
tes
y
 
P
h
a
ry
n
ge
a
l
a
rches
a
re
ana
tomic e
n
tities
y
 
P
rimitive vertebr
a
te ph
a
ry
nx
w
a
s for filter feedi
n
g o
u
t of respir
a
tory w
a
ter stre
a
m shifted to br
an
chi
a
l the
n
p
u
lmo
na
ryrespir
a
tio
n
 
4.
 
Dorsal Hollow Central Nervous System
y
 
Arises
a
s lo
n
git
u
di
na
l
NE
U
R
A
L
 
G
ROO
V
E
i
n
wh
a
t will become thedors
a
l s
u
rf 
a
ce of the embryo
y
 
G
roove closes over
an
d si
nk
s be
n
e
a
th the s
u
rf 
a
ce to become
a
 hollow
NEURAL
 
TUBE
dors
a
l to the
n
otochord.
T
u
be is wider
an
teriorly
an
d this becomes the
BR
AI
N
with its
VENTRICLES
 
y
 
CRANIAL
&
SPINAL
 
NER
V
E
S co
nn
ect C
N
S w/ v
a
rio
u
s org
an
s of the body ; met
a
meric spi
na
l
n
erves
y
 
PER
I
P
H
ER
A
L
 
NER
V
O
US SYS
TEM
is m
a
de
u
p of 
n
erves
a
lo
n
g with
a
ssoci
a
ted g
an
gli
a
 
an
d ple
xu
ses
y
 
F
A
TE
I
N
ADU
LT
V
ERTEBR
A
TE
S
o
 
Cyclostomes, teleosts, g
an
oid fishes
 
B
a
sic p
a
tter
n
of 
NE
U
RO
C
OEL
, c
a
vity, i
n
ste
a
d of formi
n
g
a
 groove the s
u
rf 
a
ce ectoderm dors
a
l to the
n
otochordprolifer
a
tes
a
wedge-sh
a
pe
NEURAL
 
KEEL
.
E
ve
n
t
ua
lly
k
eelsep
a
r
a
tes from the s
u
rf 
a
ce
an
d
a
c
a
vity forms w/i
n
it byre
a
rr
an
geme
n
t of the cells i
n
its i
n
terior
o
 
F
ishes
an
d
a
mphibi
an
s  10 cr
an
i
a
l
n
erves
o
 
R
eptiles, birds
an
d m
a
mm
a
ls 12 cr
an
i
a
l
n
erves (e
x
tr
a
2
a
respi
na
l
n
erves tr
a
pped w/i
n
s
ku
ll
)
 
VERTEBRATE CHARACTERISTICS: SOME SATELITE FEATURES
y
 
F
e
a
t
u
res
n
ot
un
iq
u
e to vertebr
a
tes
 
o
 
B
il
a
ter
a
l symmetry
o
 
M
et
a
merism
 
o
 
P
rese
n
ce of coelom  fe
a
t
u
re of 
a
ll trplobl
a
stic
an
im
a
ls
 
o
 
De
u
terosmes  embryo
n
ic bl
a
stopore, i
n
iti
a
l ope
n
i
n
g of embryo
n
ic g
u
t or
a
rche
n
tero
n
becomes
anu
s
 
y
 
Integument
o
 
Epidermis
 
G
l
an
ds  defe
n
sive, l
u
bric
a
tory,
nu
tritive, pheromo
na
l
an
dhomeost
a
sis-m
a
i
n
t
a
i
n
i
n
g
 
T
errestri
a
l vertebr
a
tes h
a
vespi
n
es,sc
a
les,fe
a
thers,h
a
ir,cl
a
ws
an
d hooves
 
 
Cor
n
ifiesd shells  l
a
yer of de
a
d cells for protectio
n
fromdehydr
a
tio
n
from e
x
pos
u
re to
a
ir
 
o
 
Dermis
 
B
o
n
e provides he
a
vy co
a
t of 
a
rmor
an
d co
n
trib
u
tes tode
n
se, sh
a
rp, poi
n
ted sc
a
les of sh
a
r
k
, thi
n
fle
x
ible sc
a
les of teleost
y
 
Respiratory
mech
an
ism
 
o
 
E
x
ter
na
l respir
a
tio
n
 e
x
ch
an
ge bet. A
n
im
a
l
an
d e
n
viro
n
me
n
tthro
u
gh highly v
a
sc
u
l
a
rised membr
an
es (gills
)
loc
a
ted o
n
 ph
a
ry
n
ge
a
l
a
rches or derived from ph
a
ry
n
ge
a
l floor (l
un
gs
)
 
o
 
Some bre
a
th thro
u
gh s
k
i
n
or
B
UCC
OP
HA
R
Y
N
G
E
A
L
 
L
I
N
I
N
G
 
o
 
E
mbryos thro
u
gh e
x
tr
a
embryo
n
ic membr
an
es th
a
t lie j
u
sti
n
side the poro
u
s egg shell or thro
u
gh li
n
i
n
g of mothers
u
ter
u
s
 
y
 
Coelom
o
 
t
u
be withi
n
t
u
be coelom betwee
n
body w
a
ll
an
d digestivetr
a
ct
 
o
 
P
a
rtitio
n
ed coelom i
n
fishes,
a
mphibi
an
s
an
d some reptiles
o
 
PERICARDIAL
CAVI
T
Y - ho
u
ses he
a
rt
 
o
 
PLEUROPERITONEAL
CAVI
T
Y  ho
u
ses other viscer
a
, l
un
gs
 
o
 
TRANSVERSE
 
SEPTUM
 sep
a
r
a
tes peric
a
rdi
a
l
an
dple
u
roperito
n
e
a
l c
a
vity
o
 
PLEURAL
 
CAVITY
 ho
u
ses l
un
gs i
n
reptiles, birds
an
dm
a
mm
a
ls
 
o
 
TENDINOUS
 
OBLIQUE
 
SEPTUM
 p
a
rtitio
n
i
n
reptiles &
a
ves
 
o
 
TENDINOMUSCULAR
 
DIAGPHRAGM
- p
a
rtitio
n
i
n
m
a
mm
a
ls
 
o
 
SCROTAL
 
CAVITIES
 hoises testes
 
o
 
PERITONEAL
 
MEMBRANE
 e
n
closes coelom
 
o
 
PARIETAL
 
PERITONEUM
 membr
an
e li
n
i
n
g the body w
a
ll
 
o
 
VISCERAL
 
PERITONEUM
 p
a
rt lyi
n
g o
n
the viscer
a
 
o
 
P
a
riet
a
l
an
d viscer
a
l perito
n
e
u
m both co
n
ti
nu
o
u
s vi
a
dors
a
lor ve
n
tr
a
l mese
n
tries
 
o
 
Kid
n
eys lie
a
g
a
i
n
st dors
a
l body w
a
ll e
x
ter
na
l to perito
n
e
u
m -
RETROPERITONEAL
y
 
Digestive org
an
s
 
o
 
Acq
u
isitio
n
, tempor
a
ry stor
a
ge, processi
n
g
an
d
a
bsorptio
n
of food
an
d for elimi
na
tio
n
of 
una
bsorbed resid
u
e
 
o
 
O
r
a
l c
a
vity, ph
a
ry
nx
, esoph
a
g
u
s, stom
a
ch, i
n
testi
n
e
 
o
 
Spir
a
l v
a
lve i
n
testi
n
e i
n
sh
a
r
k
s i
n
cre
a
ses
a
bsorptive
a
re
a
 w/o
u
t i
n
cre
a
si
n
g body le
n
gth
o
 
C
E
CA or DIV
ERT
ICU
L
A i
n
cl
u
di
n
g
L
IV
ER
,
P
A
N
C
RE
AS  h
a
vespeci
a
l f 
un
ctio
n
s i
n
digestive process
 
o
 
C
LO
ACA  ch
a
mber th
a
t receives
u
ri
na
ry
an
d reprod
u
ctived
u
cts
an
d ope
n
s to the e
x
terior vi
a
V
ENT
 
o
 
A
LL
vertebr
a
te embryos h
a
ve clo
a
c
a
b
u
t i
n
teleost its sosh
a
llow
an
s m
a
mm
a
ls it is s
u
bdivided i
n
to 2 or
3
 p
a
ss
a
gew
a
ys
 
y
 
Uroge
n
it
a
l org
an
s
 
o
 
KID
NE
YS &
G
ON
ADS
a
rise together i
n
roof of coelom
an
dsh
a
re cert
a
i
n
p
a
ss
a
gew
a
ys
 
o
 
KIDNEYS
/
NEPHROI
 elimi
na
tes w
a
ter;
a
ssist i
n
m
a
i
n
t
a
i
n
i
n
gelectrolyte b
a
l
an
ce i
n
blood
 
 
I
n
primitive fishes  fl
u
id w
a
stes
a
cc
u
m
u
l
a
te i
n
coelomthe
n
removed by
k
id
n
ey t
u
b
u
les
 
 
M
an
s comple
x
 
k
id
n
ey t
u
b
u
les collect fl
u
ids directly fromblood c
a
pill
a
ries
 
 
T
u
b
u
les le
a
d to p
a
ir of lo
n
git
u
di
na
l d
u
cts th
a
t ope
n
i
n
toclo
a
c
a
or
u
ri
na
ry bl
a
dder
 
o
 
GONADS
 d
u
cts,
a
ccessory gl
an
ds, stor
a
ge ch
a
mbers
an
dcop
u
l
a
tory mech
an
isms
 
 
All vertebr
a
te embryos
a
re bise
xua
l w/ go
na
d
a
l
an
d d
u
ctprimordi
a
l for both se
x
es
 
 
F
em
a
le  go
na
d primordi
a
l develops i
n
to ov
a
ries
 
 
M
a
le  go
na
d primordi
a
l becomes testes
 
o
 
Cyclostomes l
a
c
k
reprod
u
ctive d
u
cts; sperm
an
d eggs
a
reshed i
n
to the coelom
an
d e
x
it vi
a
 
a
 
u
roge
n
it
a
l p
a
pill
a
loc
a
tedimmedi
a
tely behi
n
d
anu
s
 
y
 
Circ
u
l
a
tory system
 
o
 
B
lood co
n
sists of pl
a
sm
a
, red
an
d white blood cells
an
dpl
a
telets co
n
fi
n
ed i
n
vei
n
s,
a
rteries, c
a
pill
a
ries
an
d si
nu
soids
 
o
 
SINUSOIDS
 bro
a
d ch
ann
els r
a
ther th
an
t
u
bes; promi
n
e
n
tfe
a
t
u
re of i
n
vertebr
a
te circ
u
l
a
tory system more commo
n
i
n
 fishes th
an
tetr
a
pods
o
 
LYMPH
 
VESSELS
 collect i
n
terstiti
a
l tiss
u
e fl
u
ids
an
d co
n
d
u
ctthem to l
a
rge vei
n
s
 
o
 
H
E
A
RT
 forms ve
n
tr
a
l to embryo
n
ic ph
a
ry
nx
; p
u
mps bloodforw
a
rd to ve
n
tr
a
l
a
ort
a
thro
u
gh
a
ortic
a
rches
an
d i
n
todors
a
l
a
ort
a
 
 
F
ishes  close to gills; si
n
gle circ
u
it he
a
rt; blood p
a
ssesfrom he
a
rt to the gills wher o2 is
a
cq
u
ired the
n
to tiss
u
es
 
 
T
etr
a
pods  displ
a
ced c
au
d
a
d d
u
ri
n
g developme
n
t
 
 
M
a
mm
a
ls  loss of gills
an
d reli
an
ce o
n
l
un
gs c
au
sed two-circ
u
it he
a
rts, where o
x
yge
na
ted blood i
n
the he
a
rt isp
u
mped to
a
ll p
a
rts of the body where
O
2 is rele
a
sed the
n
 blood low i
n
 
O
2 is p
u
mped to the l
un
gs the
n
thro
u
gh thehe
a
rt
a
g
a
i
n
 
o
 
B
r
an
ches from the
an
teriormost
a
ortic
a
rches c
a
rry blood tothe he
a
d
y
 
Skeleton
o
 
C
a
rtil
a
ge, bo
n
es
an
d lig
a
me
n
ts
 
o
 
Str
u
ct
u
r
a
l; for protectio
n
of viscer
a
l org
an
s; site of 
a
tt
a
chme
n
t for m
u
scles
 
o
 
R
igid bec
au
se of mi
n
er
a
liz
a
tio
n
of co
nn
ective tiss
u
es
 
o
 
Co
n
sists of 
 
A
x
i
a
l s
k
eleto
n
 s
ku
ll
an
d vertebr
a
l col
u
m
n
 
 
P
h
a
ry
n
ge
a
l s
k
eleto
n
 best developed i
n
fishes; s
u
pportsgills
 
 
Appe
n
dic
u
l
a
r s
k
eleto
n
 
y
 
Muscles
o
 
T
r
unk
 
an
d t
a
il m
u
scles move
ax
i
a
l s
k
eleto
n
 
o
 
B
u
dli
k
e e
x
te
n
sio
n
s from body w
a
ll m
u
scles o
n
fi
n
s or limbsmove the
a
ppe
n
dic
u
l
a
r s
k
eleto
n
 
o
 
M
u
scles o
n
ph
a
ry
n
ge
a
l
a
rches move ph
a
ry
n
ge
a
l s
k
eleto
n
 
o
 
STRIATED
 
M
USC
LE
S  foregoi
n
g m
u
scles V
OL
U
NT
A
R
Y
 
o
 
CARDIAC
 
M
USC
LE
S  v
a
riety of stri
a
ted tiss
u
e
RE
F
LEX
 
o
 
SMOOTH
 
M
USC
LE
S  w
a
lls of hollow viscer
a
 
RE
F
LEX
 
y
 
Se
n
se org
an
s
 
o
 
EXTEROCEPTORS
 mo
n
itor the e
x
ter
na
l e
n
viro
n
me
n
t
 
 
M
ech
an
oreceptors
 
 
Chemoreceptors
 
 
E
lectroreceptors
 
 
T
hermoreceptors
 
R
eceptors for r
a
di
a
tio
n
 
o
 
PROPRIOCEPTORS
- mo
n
itor
a
ctivity of m
u
scles, joi
n
ts &te
n
do
n
s
 
o
 
VISCERAL RECEPTORS
  mo
n
itor the rest of i
n
ter
na
le
n
viro
n
me
n
t
 CHAPTER
2
: CONCEPTS, PREMISES AND PIONEERSPHYLOGENY
y
 
E
vol
u
tio
na
ry history of 
a
t
ax
o
n
 
y
 
R
el
a
tes t
ax
o
n
to
an
 
an
cestr
a
l t
axa
i
n
 
a
co
n
ti
nu
o
u
s evol
u
tio
na
ryli
n
e
 PHYLOGENESIS
y
 
P
rocess th
a
t prod
u
ces li
n
e
a
ge; speci
a
tio
n
 form
a
tio
n
of 
n
ewspecies from e
x
isti
n
g o
n
es
y
 
R
eq
u
ires more th
an
 
a
lifetime
ONTOGENY
y
 
History of 
an
i
n
divid
ua
l ; from embryo
n
ic developme
n
t to de
a
thi
n
cl
u
di
n
g post-embryo
n
ic ch
an
ges
an
d
a
gi
n
g
 ONTOGENESIS
y
 
E
mbryoge
n
esis
an
d s
u
bseq
u
e
n
t ch
an
ges ; ge
n
es
 
y
 
R
eq
u
ires
a
si
n
gle lifetime
 VON BAERS LAW 18
2
8
 
y
 
F
e
a
t
u
res commo
n
to
a
ll members of 
a
m
a
 jor t
ax
o
n
omic gro
u
pof 
an
im
a
ls develop e
a
rlier i
n
o
n
toge
n
y th
an
do speci
a
l fe
a
t
u
resth
a
t disti
n
g
u
ish s
u
bdivisio
n
of the gro
u
p
y
 
Commo
n
embryo
n
ic fe
a
t
u
res gr
a
d
ua
lly modify
a
ccdg.
T
o the
a
d
a
pt
a
tio
n
of the species
a
s it develops i
n
its e
n
viro
n
me
n
t
y
 
B
I
O
G
ENET
IC
L
A
W
 
o
 
F
e
a
t
u
res th
a
t develop e
a
rliest i
n
o
n
toge
n
y
a
re the oldestphyloge
n
etic
a
lly h
a
vi
n
g bee
n
i
n
herited from commo
n
 
an
cestors
an
d fe
a
t
u
res th
a
t develop l
a
ter i
n
o
n
toge
n
y
a
re of more rece
n
t phylog
n
etic origi
n
 
TAXONOMY
y
 
St
u
dy of the pri
n
ciples
an
d proced
u
res employed i
n
pl
a
ci
n
gorg
an
isms i
n
 
a
ppropri
a
te t
axa
i
n
 
a
ccord
an
ce to 1 or morepredetermi
n
ed criteri
a
 
y
 
T
ech
n
iq
u
es of orderi
n
g t
axa
i
n
to hier
a
rchies th
a
t reflect thecriteri
a
i
n
 
a
me
an
i
n
gf 
u
l w
a
y
y
 
Criteri
a
:
o
 
P
hyloge
n
etic  ge
n
e
a
logy of the gro
u
p

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