DAMPAK PARIWISATA TERHADAP PENCIPTAAN KESEMPATAN KERJA
(IMPACT OF TOURISM ON JOB CREATION)Made Antara
Lecturer at Magister of Tourism Study, University of Udayanaemail: email@example.com
From economic perspective, positive impacts of tourism, at least in the case of Bali(Indonesia) can be seen from several indicators, namely (1) as a source of foreign exchangefor the country, (2) a potential market for goods and services produced by the localcommunity, (3) to increase the community income whose activities directly or indirectlyrelated to services of tourism, (4) to increase the job opportunity, either in direct-linkagesectors such as hotel, restaurant, travel agent, or at indirect-linkage sectors such as handicraftindustry, supply of agricultural produce, culture attraction, retailer business, and the other
service activities, (5) as a source of region‟s indirect taxes, and (6) to stimulate the artist
creativity, such as those in small-scale industry or in traditional performing arts.The number of tourists visiting a destination will affect the total tourists expenditure inthe destination.
Every increase of the tourists‟ expenditure will increase the demand on
output, GRDP, wages and salary, indirect taxes, and increase job opportunity. This linkagecan be measured by calculating the multiplier effect. By using the Matrix Multiplier of National Satellite Account 2006 known that tourists expenditure multiplier toward jobcreation in tourism sector is 0,0000000530 and in the national economy is 0,000000761. Itsmean, every tourists expenditure one quintillion rupiah (Rp 1,000,000,000,000) will createemployment opportunity in tourism sector 53.000 people, and in the national economy. Share job creation in tourism toward national economy is 6, 97%. For case of Bali, using BaliTourism Satellite Account 2007, it can be summarized as follows. The economic impact of
tourists‟ expenditure on the creation of employment in tourism
sector is 0,0000000283 and ineconomic alone is 0, 00000006756. It means that every tourists expenditure one quintillionrupiah (Rp 1,000,000,000,000) will create employment opportunity in tourism is 28,300peoples, and in Bali alone job opportunity is 67,560 peoples. Thus, the share of employmentcreation in tourism on overall employment reaches 41.89%.It is then save to conclude that tourism has been the engine of job creation. The
increase of tourist arrival on the island (meaning the increase of tourists‟ expenditure), will
significantly increase the demand of output, and finally increase the employmentopportunity. In this perspective, it can be said that Bali has been correct to put tourism as apriority of its development strategy, as tourism is a good vehicle to increase job creation,government income, revitalization of arts and culture, poverty alleviation, or the welfare of the people in general.
Keywords: tourism, job, creation, multiplier
Makalah disajikan pada workshop “Tourism Satellite Account” pada
Selasa, 24 Maret 2009 di Denpasar,yang diselenggarakan oleh Dinas Pariwisata Propinsi Bali.This paper is part of
paper with title “TOURISM LABOUR MARKET IN THE ASIA PACIFIC REGION:
A CASE STUDY INDONESIA
resented at the Fifth UNWTO International Conference on TourismStatistics: Tourism an Engine for Employment Creation. Bali, Indonesia, 30 March
2 April 2009.