Timeline of geology
: see alsogeologic time scale.
c.1025-Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnīpublishes the
Kitab fi Tahqiq ma li'l-Hind
Researches on India
), in which he discusses thegeology of India and hypothesizes that it was once asea.
The Book of Healing
, in which he hypothesizes on two causesof mountains,
and proposes thelaw of superpositionand the concept of uniformitarianism.
e re metallica
. This book acts as the standard mining andassaying text for the next 250 years.
1620-Francis Baconnotices the jigsaw fit of the opposite shores of the Atlantic Ocean
1669- Nicolas Stenoputs forward his theory that sedimentary strata had been deposited
in former seas, and that fossils were organic in origin
1701-Edmund Halleysuggests using the salinity and evaporation of the Mediterranean
to determine the age of the Earth
1743- Dr Christopher Packeproduces a geological map of south-east England
1746-Jean-Étienne Guettardpresents the first mineralogical map of Franceto theFrench
Academy of Sciences.
1760-John Michellsuggests earthquakes are caused by one layer of rocks rubbing
1776-James Keir suggests that some rocks, such as those at theGiant's Causeway, might
have been formed by the crystallisation of molten lava
1779-Comte de Buffonspeculates that the Earth is older than the 6,000 years suggested
by the Bible
1785-James Huttonpresents paper entitled Theory of the Earth - earth must be old
1799-William Smithproduces the first large scale geological map, of the area around
1809-William Maclureconducts the first geological survey of the eastern United States
1830- Sir Charles Lyellpublishes book, Principles of Geology, which describes the
world as being several hundred million years old
1837-Louis Agassizbegins his glaciation studies which eventually demonstrate that the
Earth has had at least oneice age
1862-Lord Kelvinattempts to find the age of the Earth by examining its cooling time
and estimates that the Earth is between 20--400 million years old
1903-George DarwinandJohn Jolyclaim that radioactivity is partially responsible for
the Earth's heat
1907-Bertram Boltwoodproposes that the amount of lead in uranium and thorium ores
might be used to determine the Earth's age and crudely dates some rocks to have ages between 410--2200 million years
1911-Arthur Holmesuses radioactivity to date rocks, the oldest being 1.6 billion years
1912-Alfred Wegener proposes that all the continents once formed a single landmass
called Pangaea that broke apart viacontinental drift