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UNCChem Glossary

UNCChem Glossary

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Published by: kapil on Aug 28, 2011
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UNCChem Glossary
Click on the first letter of the term.[a][ b][c][d][e][f][g][h][i][j][][l][m][n][o][ p][q][][s][t][u][v][w][x][y][z] UNChem Main Pageor Shodor Home Page 
A
 
acceleration
 Measure of how fast velocity is changing, so we can think of it as the change in velocityover time. The most common use of acceleration is acceleration due to gravity which canalso appear as the gravitational constant (9.8 m/s
2
).
acid
Compound that gives off H
+
ions in solution.
acidic
 Describes a solution with a high concentration of H
+
ions.
anion
 Ions with a negative charge
anode
 The electrode where electrons are lost (oxidized) in redox reactions.
area
 Measures the size of a surface using length measurements in two dimensions.
associativity
 A property in math which states that: (A+B)+C=A+(B+C) and (A*B)*C=A*(B*C)
atmospheres
 Common units for measuring pressure.
atom
 The smallest object that retains properties of an element. Composed of electrons and anucleus (containing protons and neutrons).
atomic number
  Number of protons in an element.
Avagadro's number
  Number representing the number of molecules in one (1) mole: 6.023 * 10
23
.Back totop.
B
 
base
 Substance which gives off hydroxide ions (OH
-
) in solution.
basic
 Having the characteristics of a base.
Bohr's atom
 
 
Bohr made significant contributions to the atom. He understood the line spectra-- thereason why only certain wavelengths are emitted when atoms jump down levels.
buffer solutions
 Solutions that resist changes in their pH, even when small amounts of acid or base areadded.Back totop.
C
 
catalyst
 Substance that speeds up a chemical process without actually changing the products of reaction
cathode
 Electrode where electrons are gained (reduction) in redox reactions.
cations
 Ion with a positive charge.
central atom
 In a Lewis structure, usually the atom that is the most electronegative.
charge
 Describes an object's ability to repel or attract other objects. Protons have positivecharges while electrons have negative charges. Like charges repel each other whileopposite charges, such as protons and electrons, attract one another.
chemical changes
 Processes or events that have altered the fundamental structure of something.
chemical equation
 An expression of a fundamental change in the chemical substances.
closure
 A mathmatical term which says that if you operated on any two real numbers A and Bwith +,-,* or /, you get a real number 
colligative properties
 Properties of a solution that depend only on the number of particles dissolved in it, notthe properties of the particles themselves. The main colligative properties addressed atthis web site are boiling point elevation and freezing point depression.
combustion
 When substances combine with oxygen and release energy.
commutativity
 A math property which states: A+B=B+A and A*B=B*A
compound
 Two or more atoms joined together chemically, with covalent or ionic bonds.
concentration
 The amount of substance in a specified space.
conjugate acid
 A substance which can lose a H
+
ion to form a base.
conjugate base
 A substance which can gain a H
+
ion to form an acid.
 
covalent bonds
 When two atoms share at least one pair of electrons.Back totop.
D
 
daughter isotope
 In a nuclear equation the compound remaining after the parent isotope (the originalisotope) has undergone decay. A compound undergoing decay, such as alpha decay, will break into an alpha particle and a daughter isotope.
decay
 Change of an element into a different element, usually with some other particle(s) andenergy emitted.
decimal
 The number of digits to the right of the decimal point in a number 
dense
 A compact substance or a substance with a high density.
density
 Mass per unit volume of a substance.
dipole-dipole forces
 Intermolecular forces that exist between polar molecules. Active only when themolecules are close together. The strengths of intermolecular attractions increase when polarity increases.
dispersion forces (also called London dispersion forces)
 Dispersion is an intermolecular attraction force that exists between all molecules. Theseforces are the result of the movement of electrons which cause slight polar moments.Dispersion forces are generally very weak but as the molecular weight increases so doestheir strength.
dissociation
 Breaking down of a compound into its components.
distributivity
 A math property which states: A*(B+C)=(A*B)+(A*C)
double bond
 When an atom is bonded to another atom by two sets of electron pairs.Back totop.
E
 
effusion
 Movement of gas molecules through a small opening.
electrochemical cell
 Gives an electric current with a steady voltage as a result of an electron transfer reaction.
electrodes
 Device that moves electrons into or out of a solution by conduction.

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