Considered to be the point at which theoretically no molecular activity exists or thetemperatureat which the volume of a perfect gas vanishes. The value is 0°Kelvin,-273.15°Celsiusand -459.67°Fahrenheit.
The process in which incidentradiantenergy is retained by a substance. The absorbedradiation is then transformed into molecular energy.
The flat, gently sloping or nearly level region of theseafloor.
Athermodynamicchange of state in a system in which there is no transfer of heator massacross the boundaries of the system. In this process, compression will result in warmingand expansion will result in cooling.
The horizontal transfer of any property in theatmosphereby the movement of air(wind).Examples includeheatandmoistureadvection.
Statements that are issued by theNational Weather Servicefor probable weather situationsof inconvenience that do not carry the danger of warningcriteria, but, if not observed,could lead to hazardous situations. Some examples includesnowadvisories stating possibleslick streets, orfogadvisories for patchy fog condition causing temporary restrictions tovisibility.
Athunderstormthat is produced byconvectionwithin an unstableair massthrough aninstabilitymechanism. Such thunderstorms normally occur within atropicalor warm, moistair mass during the summer afternoon as the result of afternoon heating and dissipate soonaftersunset.Such thunderstorms are not generally associated withfrontsand are lesslikely to becomeseverethan other types of thunderstorms. However, that does notpreclude them from having brief heavydownpours.
The soiling of theatmosphereby contaminants to the point that may cause injury to health,property, plant, or animal life, or prevent the use and enjoyment of the outdoors.
AIR QUALITY STANDARDS
Themaximumlevel which will be permitted for a givenpollutant.Primary standards are tobe sufficiently stringent to protect the public health. Secondary standards must protect thepublic welfare, including property and aesthetics.
Thedownslopeair flow that blows through the Alaskan valleys. It is usually given localnames, such as Knik, Matanuska, Pruga, Stikine, Taku, Take, Turnagain, or Williwaw.
The ratio of the amount of radiationreflected from an object's surface compared to theamount that strikes it. This varies according to the texture, color, and expanse of theobject's surface and is reported in percentage. Surfaces with high albedo includesandandsnow, while low albedo rates include forests and freshly turned earth.Related term:Dave's Dictionary
A fast moving,snow-producingweathersystem that originates in theleeof the CanadianRockies. It moves quickly across the northern United States, often bring gustywindsandcoldArcticair.
Composed of flattened, thick, gray, globular masses, thismiddle cloudgenus is primarilymade of water droplets. In themid-latitudes, cloud bases are usually found between 8,000and 18,000 feet. A defining characteristic is that it often appears as a wavy billowy layer of cloud, giving it the nickname of "sheep" or "woolpack" clouds. Sometimes confused withcirrocumulusclouds, its elements (individual clouds) have a larger mass and cast a shadowon other elements. It may form several sub-types, such asaltocumulus castellanusoraltocumulus lenticularis.Virgamay also fall from these clouds.
Thismiddle cloudgenus is composed of water droplets, and sometimesice crystals, In themid-latitudes, cloud bases are generally found between 15,000 and 20,000 feet. White togray in color, it can create a fibrous veil or sheet, sometimes obscuring the sun or moon. Itis a good indicator of precipitation, as it often precedes astormsystem.Virgaoften fallsfrom these clouds.
An instrument for measuring theatmospheric pressure. It registers the change in the shapeof an evacuated metal cell to measure variations on the atmospheric pressure. The aneroidis a thin-walled metal capsule or cell, usually made of phosphor bronze or beryllium copper.The scales on the glass cover measure pressure in bothinchesandmillibars.Related term:mercurial barometer
This refers to the non-standard propagation of a beam of energy, radio orradar,undercertainatmosphericconditions, appearing as false (non-precipitation) echoes. May bereferred to as A.P.
Of or relating to the area around the geographic South Pole, from 90° South to theAntarctic Circle at approximately 66 1/2°Southlatitude,including the continent of Antarctica. Along the Antarctic Circle, the sun does not set on the day of thesummersolstice(approximately December 21st) and does not rise on the day of thewintersolstice(approximately June 21st).
Although not officially recognized as a separateoceanbody, it is commonly applied to thoseportions of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans that reach theAntarcticcontinent ontheir southern extremes.
The upper portion of acumulonimbuscloud that becomes flat and spread-out, sometimesfor hundreds of miles downstream from the parent cloud. It may look smooth or fibrous,but in shape, it resembles a blacksmith's anvil. It indicates the mature or decaying stage of athunderstorm.
The point on the earth's orbit that is farthest from the sun. Although the position is part of a 21,000 year cycle, currently it occurs around July, when the earth is about 3 million milesfarther from the sun than atperihelion. This term can be applied to any other celestial bodyin orbit around the sun. It is the opposite of perihelion.
The point farthest from the earth on the moon's orbit. This term can be applied to any otherbody orbiting the earth, such assatellites. It is the opposite of perigee.
Of or relating to the area around the geographic North Pole, from 90° North to the ArcticCircle at approximately 66 1/2 Northlatitude.
ARCTIC AIR MASS
Anair massthat develops around theArctic,it is characterized by being cold from surfaceto great heights. The boundary of this air mass is often defined by the Arcticfront, a semi-permanent, semi-continuous feature. When this air mass moves from its source region, itmay become more shallow in height as it spreads southward.