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Chapter 4

Chapter 4

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Chapter 4
Structures and Properties of Substances
Solutions for Practice Problems
Student Textbook pages 165–166
1.
Problem
 Write electron configurations for the following:
(a)
Li
+
(b)
Ca
2
+
(c)
Br
(d)
O
2
Solution
First determine the atomic number of the ion, and then add or subtract electrons tomatch the charge indicated on the ion. Use the aufbau process to write the completeelectron configuration of the ion.
(a)
Li
+
:Z
=
3, subtract one electron for
+
1charge; 1
2
(b)
Ca
2
+
:Z
=
20, subtract two electrons for
+
2 charge; 1
2
2
2
2
 p 
6
3
2
3
 p 
6
(c)
Br
:Z
=
35, add one electron for charge of 
1;1
2
2
2
2
 p 
6
3
2
3
 p 
6
4
2
3
10
4
 p 
6
(d)
O
2
:Z
=
8, add two electrons for charge of 
2;1
2
2
2
2
 p 
6
Check Your Solution
 A check of the sequence of orbitals shows that the aufbau process was followedcorrectly. The number of electrons in each electron configuration matches thedifference of Z
(net charge on ion). The answers are correct.
2
.Problem
Draw Lewis structures for the chemical species in question 1.
Solution
In a Lewis structure, the nucleus and the inner core electrons are represented by thesymbol for the element. The electrons in the valence shell are drawn around thesymbol.
(a)(b)(c)(d)
Check Your Solution
Each positive ion shows no electrons. This is expected, since electrons were removedfrom the valence shell. Each negative ion has 8 valence electrons. This is expected forall ions except helium-like ions.
3.
Problem
Draw orbital diagrams and Lewis structures to show how the following pairs of elements can combine. In each case, write the chemical formula for the product.
Solution
In each example, electrons are transferred from the metal to the non-metal so thateach ion attains a noble gas electron configuration.
2
O
• •• •
Br
• •• •
2+
Ca
+
Li
36
Chapter 4
Structures and Properties of Substances • MHR
CHEMISTRY 12
 
(a)
Lewis structure:
(b)
Lewis structure:
(c)
Lewis structure:
(d)
Lewis structure:
Check Your Solution
In each case the ions have a noble gas electron con
guration that takes into accountthe charge on the ion. The answers are correct.
   →
   →
   →
   
1
2
2
N
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
1
2
2
   →
3
Na
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   
   
1
2
2
   →
3
Na
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
1
2
2
   →
3
Na
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
1
2
2
Na
+
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
1
2
2
Na
+
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
1
2
2
N
3
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
1
2
2
Na
+
+
Na
+
Na
+
Na
+
• •
N
• •• •
N
Na
Na
Na
3
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   
   
1
2
2
Cl
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
1
2
2
   →
   →
   →
   →
   
   
3
3
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
3
3
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
3
   →
4
3
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   
3
3
K
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
1
2
2
Cl
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
1
2
2
K
+
+
Cl
+
• •• •
Cl
KK
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   
   
1
2
2
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   
3
3
Cl
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   
   
1
2
2
Cl
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
1
2
2
   →
   →
   →
   →
   
   
3
3
   →
   →
   →
   →
   
   
3
3
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
3
3
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
3
   →
   →
4
3
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   
3
3
Ca
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
1
2
2
Cl
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
1
2
2
Cl
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
1
2
2
Ca
2
+
+
Ca
2
+
• •• •
Cl
• •• •
Cl
Ca
• •• •
Cl
• •• •
Cl
   →
   
1
2
Li
   →
   
   →
   
1
2
3
Li
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
1
2
2
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
3
3
3
S
   →
   →
1
Li
+
   →
   →
1
Li
+
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
   →
1
2
2
S
2
S
Li
+
S
Li
+
Li
+
Li
2
37
Chapter 4
Structures and Properties of Substances • MHR
CHEMISTRY 12
 
4.
Problem
To which main group on the periodic table does X belong?
(a)
MgX 
(b)
 X 
2
SO
4
(c)
 X 
2
O
3
(d)
 XCO
3
Solution
Since these compounds are all ionic, the zero sum rule applies, and the sum of thecharges on the ions must equal zero. Once you know the charge on the ion, it canbe related to the characteristic charge on ions for the main group elements.
(a)
The charge on Mg is
+
2. Therefore, (
+
2)
+
= 0, and
= −
2. X 
2
 will be ingroup 16.
(b)
The charge onSO
4
is
2. Therefore, 2(
)
+
(
2)
=
0, and
=
+
1. X 
+
 will be ingroup 1.
(c)
The charge on O is
2. Therefore, 2(
)
+
3(
2)
=
0, and
= +
3. X 
3
+
 will be ingroup 3.
(d)
The charge on CO
3
is
2. Therefore,
+
(
2)
=
0, and
= +
2. X 
2
+
 will be ingroup 2.
Check Your Solution
In each case the zero sum rule holds. The charge on each X ion has been determinedcorrectly.
Solutions for Practice Problems
Student Textbook pages 169–170
5.
Problem
List the following compounds in order of decreasing bond energy: H
Br, H
I,H
Cl. Use Appendix E to verify your answer.
Solution
Since all bonds are electrical in nature, a greater difference in charge betweentwo atoms indicates a stronger attraction between the atoms, and therefore, astronger bond. The difference in charge can be estimated using the property of electronegativity. A greater difference in electronegativity between the two atoms inthe bond indicates a greater attraction between the atoms. (A greater electronegativity also indicates a greater ionic character of the bond.) For each bond, measure thedifference in electronegativity, (
EN 
). The greater
EN 
, the stronger the bond.H
Cl:
EN 
=
3.16
2.20
=
0.96H
Br:
EN 
=
2.96
2.20
=
0.76H
I:
EN 
=
2.66
2.20
=
0.46Based upon these calculated values for
EN 
, H
Cl has greatest bond energy andH
I has the least bond energy. From Appendix E, the bond energies con
rm thisconclusion.H
Cl: bond energy 
=
432 kJ/molH
Br: bond energy 
=
366 kJ/molH
I: bond energy 
=
298 kJ/mol
Check Your Solution
Since the measured value of bond energy matches the prediction using
EN 
, this is avalid method to estimate bond strength.
38
Chapter 4
Structures and Properties of Substances • MHR
CHEMISTRY 12

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