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Unit 3 Review Solutions

Unit 3 Review Solutions

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I
The Design Criteria, Action Plan and Evaluate steps for this project are clearly out-lined in the student textbook. Ask students to read through the details to be certainthat they understand and follow through.
I
 As part of their research, encourage students to contact relevant companies andorganizations to ask for information. E-mail is a great way to do this. You may wantto spend some time as a class developing a sample e-mail that students can modify.
UNIT 3
Chapter 6
R
ATESOF
C
HEMICAL
R
EACTIONS
172
MHR •
Unit 3
Energy Changes and Rates of Reactions
Thoughtlab/ ExpressLab/ InvestigationCurriculumExpectationsAssessmentTools/ TechniquesAchievementChart Category Learning Skills
Unit 3 Project:Developing aBulletin AboutCatalysts andEnzymes
Speci
c Expectation
Relating Science to Technology, Society,and the Environment 
I
[EC 3.03] describe the use of catalysts inindustry (e.g., catalytic converters) and inbiochemical systems (e.g., enzymes) on the basis of information gathered fromprint and electronic sources
I
Student-designedrubric
I
Rubric for Unit3 Project (seeAssessmentRubrics,Teacher’sResourceCD–ROM)
I
MakingConnections
I
Teamwork
I
Organization
Assessment and Evaluation
Unit 3 Review Answers
Student Textbook pages 316–319
Answers to Knowledge/Understanding Questions
Multiple Choice
1.
(a)
2.
(d)
3.
(a)
4.
(a)
5.
(c)
6.
(b)
7.
(a)
8.
(a)
9.
(c)
10.
(d)
Short Answer
11.
In an open system, matter and energy can be freely exchanged between the system and the surroundings. Forexample, if an exothermic reaction takes place in an openbeaker, energy can be exchanged between the system and thesurroundings in the form of heat. An insulated system usu-ally prevents the exchange of energy between the system andthe surroundings. For example, in calorimetry, an exother-mic reaction will result in an increase in temperature of thesystem. It is assumed that the surroundings are not affected.
12.
The system is the part of the universe that is being studied.The surroundings are defined as the rest of the universe. Inpractice, the surroundings are the portion of the universe thatare likely to be measurably affected by the system. For exam-ple, potassium chlorate decomposes when heated to formpotassium chloride and oxygen gas. If the system is defined asreactants and products (potassium chlorate, potassium chlo-ride and oxygen gas), the surroundings in practice include thereaction container, the heat source and the surrounding air.By definition, the surroundings are the rest of the universe.
13. (a)
Chemical bonds result from electrostatic attractionbetween atoms. Since energy must be added to over-come this attraction, bond breaking is an endothermicprocess in which the enthalpy increases. Since the prod-ucts have more enthalpy than the reactants, theenthalpy change has a positive value.
(b)
 As chemical bonds form, electrostatic attraction increasesand the energy of the bond system decreases. Bond for-mation is an exothermic process in which enthalpy decreases. Since the products have less energy than thereactants, the enthalpy change has a negative value.
 
173
Chapter 6
Rates of Chemical Reactions • MHR
(c)
The enthalpy change of a reaction is equal to the sumof the energy needed to break bonds, minus the sum of the energy released as new bonds form. This relation-ship can be expressed in the form of an equation:
rxn
bond energy reactants
bond energy products
14.
Since the reactants have more energy than the products, thedifference in energy must be released to the surroundings.Therefore, the reaction is an exothermic reaction.
15.
The greater the amount of reactant the greater the totalenthalpy change once the reaction has proceeded to com-pletion. If the quantity of reactants doubles, then theenthalpy change also doubles, and so on. For example:H
2
O
(
)
H
2(g)
12
O
2(g)
285.8 kJ/mol2H
2
O
(
)
2H
2(g)
O
2(g)
571.6 kJ/mol285.8 kJ of energy must be added to decompose18.0 g (1.00 mol) of H
2
O
(
)
. For 36.0 g (2.00 mol) of H
2
O
(
)
to decompose, 571.6 kJ of energy must be added.
16.
Energy is added for vaporization to occur and the energy change has a positive value; energy is given off in conden-sation and the energy change has a negative value.However, since vaporization is the opposite process to con-densation, the absolute value of the enthalpy change foreach process is the same, according to Hess’s Law.
17.
 A constant-pressure calorimeter will allow gases producedin the reaction to escape into the atmosphere, thereby maintaining a constant pressure within the calorimeter.The calorimeter should, however, allow the minimum pos-sible quantity of heat to be absorbed from or escape intothe surroundings.
18.
Metals have a low specific heat capacity. In other words, ittakes a relatively small quantity of heat to change the tem-perature of a metal by 1˚C. Metals are also good conduc-tors of heat. The temperature of a metal spoon would risequickly if it were used to stir hot soup, making it uncom-fortable to hold the spoon. Plastic and wood are materialsthat have higher specific heat capacities than metal, there-fore they can absorb more heat without their temperatureincreasing significantly. Also, plastic and wood do not con-duct heat very well.
19.(a)
(1) 4 C
(graphite)
5 H
2(g)
C
4
H
10(g)
(2) C
(graphite)
O
2(g)
CO
2(g)
(3) H
2(g)
O
2(g)
H
2
O
(g)
(b)
(1)
1C
4
H
10(g)
4C
(graphite)
5H
2(g)
(2)
44C
(graphite)
4O
2(g)
4CO
2(g)
(3)
55H
2(g)
52
O
2(g)
5H
2
O
(g)
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________C
4
H
10(g)
4C
(graphite)
4O
2(g)
5H
2(g)
52
O
2(g)
4C
(graphite)
5H
2(g)
4CO
2(g)
5H
2
O
(g)
or 
,C
4
H
10(g)
O
2(g)
4CO
2(g)
5H
2
O
(g)13
2
20.
In its standard state at 25˚C and 100 kPa pressure, iodineis a solid, not a gas. To vapourize iodine under these condi-tions requires an input of 21 kJ/mol of energy.
21.
The half-life is the time it takes for a reaction to be half over, i.e. for half of the reactants to be consumed. Half-lifeis usually expressed in units of seconds, and gives a clearmeasure of whether the reaction is fast or slow.
22.
The statement is not true. Enthalpy change,
, isdependent only on the reactants and the products. It doesnot give any indication of the activation energies for thesteps in the mechanism of the reaction, nor does it indicatethe molecularity of the reaction or the likelihood of properorientation of reactants. An exothermic reaction may pro-ceed very slowly or not at all if it has high activation ener-gies or a trimolecular step in its mechanism; conversely, anendothermic reaction may proceed very quickly if it hasonly one step that has a low activation energy.
23.
If the reaction A 
B
products, has a rate law: rate
[A]
[B]
, and the order of reaction is (m
n), mathe-matically the units for
are related to the order of reactionaccording to the following equation:
mLol
1
s
1
(Students may also simply list the units for first, second,and third order reactions. Accept this answer also.)
24.
The number of effective collisions between reactant particlesper unit time determines the reaction rate. Temperatureincreases reactant rate because it increases the number of collisions and also increases the average energy of collisions,increasing the percentage of collisions that equal or exceedthe activation energy. Increasing the surface area of a solidincreases the reaction rate because it increases the numberof exposed particles available for collisions. Increasing con-
 
centration or pressure increases the number of particlesavailable for a collision in a given volume. Agitating a fluidreaction mixture distributes unreacted particles evenly,increasing the chance of a successful collision.
25.26.
Initial rate is usually average rate measured over a brief period of time at the start of a reaction. The instantaneousrate measures the rate of consumption of reactants or pro-duction of products at a given instant during the reaction.Strictly speaking, the initial rate of reaction and instanta-neous rate of reaction are exactly the same only at themoment the reaction begins. In practice, the rate of a reac-tion is relatively constant initially. Therefore, over a brief period of time at the start of the reaction, the initial rateand the instantaneous rate will be about the same at any given moment.
Answers to Inquiry Questions
27. (a)
Find the quantity of heat absorbed by solution:
soln.
soln
soln
soln
101.96 g
4.184 J/g˚C
5.3˚C
2.3
10
3
 J
2.3 kJ
rxn
soln
2.3 kJFind number of moles of sodium hydroxide.mol NaOH
0.049 mol NaOHFind enthalpy change for one mol NaOH.
dissolve
47 kJ/mol NaOH
(b)
If the heat capacity of the calorimeter is not negligible,the calorimeter will absorb a significant quantity of heat. This will result in a smaller temperature change,
, than would have occurred if the calorimeter hadabsorbed no heat. The calculated
rxn.
 will thereforebe a smaller negative number than the actual
rxn.
Therefore,
calculated
 
actual
.
(c)28.
Two events occur during the solvation process: ionic attrac-tions are overcome (endothermic) and ions becomehydrated or surrounded by water molecules (exothermic).In this case, more energy is absorbed to break ionic attrac-tions than is given off during hydration of the ions. Theoverall process is therefore endothermic and absorbs energy from the water, decreasing its temperature.
29.
First, find the quantity of heat given off as 1.0
10
2
gCaO react.mol CaO
56.10.80g
/m1o0l
2
CgaO
1.8 mol CaOheat produced by 1.8 mol CaO reacting
65 kJ/mol CaO
1.8 mol CaO
1.2
10
2
kJNext, find the number of moles of CH
4
needed to produce1.2
10
2
kJ in a combustion reaction.mol CH
4
0.15 mol CH
4
Finally, find the volume of 0.15 mol CH
4
at 100 kPaand 20˚C.volume of CH
4
0.15 mol
24 L/mol
3.6 L CH
4
30. (a)
C
12
H
22
O
11(s)
12O
2(g)
12CO
2(g)
11 H
2
O
(g)
5.65
10
3
kJ
(b)
mol sucrose
0.0146 mol sucroseheat released
0.0146 mol sucrose
5.65
10
3
kJ/mol sucrose
82.5 kJ5.00 g sucrose

342.34 g/mol sucrose1.2
10
2
kJ

8.0
10
2
kJ/mol CH
4
2.3 kJ

0.049 mol NaOH1.96 g NaOH

40.0 g/mol NaOH
UNIT 3
Chapter 6
R
ATESOF
C
HEMICAL
R
EACTIONS
174
MHR •
Unit 3
Energy Changes and Rates of Reactions
  e  n   t   h  a   l  p  y ,
      H
NaOH
(aq)
NaOH
(s)
dissolve
 
=
 
47 kJ/mol
(reactant)product
A
+
BReaction progress
   P  o   t  e  n   t   i  a   l  e  n  e  r  g  y ,   k   J
AB
a
A•••B

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