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Bai Bao Cm Dl Fermat Lon_andrew Wiles

Bai Bao Cm Dl Fermat Lon_andrew Wiles

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Annals of Mathematics,
141
(1995), 443-551
Pierre de Fermat Andrew John Wiles
Modular elliptic curvesandFermat’s Last Theorem
By
Andrew John Wiles
*
For Nada, Claire, Kate and Olivia Cubum autem in duos cubos, aut quadratoquadratum in duos quadra-toquadratos, et generaliter nullam in infinitum ultra quadratum potestatum in duos ejusdem nominis fas est dividere
:
cujes redemonstrationem mirabilem sane detexi. Hanc marginis exiguitasnon caperet.- Pierre de Fermat 
1637 
Abstract.
When Andrew John Wiles was 10 years old, he read Eric Temple Bell’s
TheLast Problem 
and was so impressed by it that he decided that he would be the first personto prove Fermat’s Last Theorem. This theorem states that there are no nonzero integers
a,b,c,n
with
n >
2 such that
a
n
+
b
n
=
c
n
. The object of this paper is to prove thatall semistable elliptic curves over the set of rational numbers are modular. Fermat’s LastTheorem follows as a corollary by virtue of previous work by Frey, Serre and Ribet.
Introduction
An elliptic curve over
Q
is said to be modular if it has a finite covering bya modular curve of the form
0
(
)
.
Any such elliptic curve has the propertythat its Hasse-Weil zeta function has an analytic continuation and satisfies afunctional equation of the standard type. If an elliptic curve over
Q
with agiven
j
-invariant is modular then it is easy to see that all elliptic curves withthe same
j
-invariant are modular (in which case we say that the
j
-invariantis modular). A well-known conjecture which grew out of the work of Shimuraand Taniyama in the 1950’s and 1960’s asserts that every elliptic curve over
Q
is modular. However, it only became widely known through its publication in apaper of Weil in 1967 [We] (as an exercise for the interested reader!), in which,moreover, Weil gave conceptual evidence for the conjecture. Although it hadbeen numerically verified in many cases, prior to the results described in thispaper it had only been known that finitely many
j
-invariants were modular.In 1985 Frey made the remarkable observation that this conjecture shouldimply Fermat’s Last Theorem. The precise mechanism relating the two wasformulated by Serre as the
ε
-conjecture and this was then proved by Ribet inthe summer of 1986. Ribet’s result only requires one to prove the conjecturefor semistable elliptic curves in order to deduce Fermat’s Last Theorem.
*The work on this paper was supported by an NSF grant.
 
444 ANDREW JOHN WILES
Our approach to the study of elliptic curves is via their associated Galoisrepresentations. Suppose that
ρ
 p
is the representation of Gal(¯
Q
/
Q
) on the
 p
-division points of an elliptic curve over
Q
, and suppose for the moment that
ρ
3
is irreducible. The choice of 3 is critical because a crucial theorem of Lang-lands and Tunnell shows that if 
ρ
3
is irreducible then it is also modular. Wethen proceed by showing that under the hypothesis that
ρ
3
is semistable at 3,together with some milder restrictions on the ramification of 
ρ
3
at the otherprimes, every suitable lifting of 
ρ
3
is modular. To do this we link the problem,via some novel arguments from commutative algebra, to a class number prob-lem of a well-known type. This we then solve with the help of the paper [TW].This suffices to prove the modularity of 
as it is known that
is modular if and only if the associated 3-adic representation is modular.The key development in the proof is a new and surprising link between twostrong but distinct traditions in number theory, the relationship between Galoisrepresentations and modular forms on the one hand and the interpretation of special values of 
L
-functions on the other. The former tradition is of coursemore recent. Following the original results of Eichler and Shimura in the1950’s and 1960’s the other main theorems were proved by Deligne, Serre andLanglands in the period up to 1980. This included the construction of Galoisrepresentations associated to modular forms, the refinements of Langlands andDeligne (later completed by Carayol), and the crucial application by Langlandsof base change methods to give converse results in weight one. However withthe exception of the rather special weight one case, including the extension byTunnell of Langlands’ original theorem, there was no progress in the directionof associating modular forms to Galois representations. From the mid 1980’sthe main impetus to the field was given by the conjectures of Serre whichelaborated on the
ε
-conjecture alluded to before. Besides the work of Ribet andothers on this problem we draw on some of the more specialized developmentsof the 1980’s, notably those of Hida and Mazur.The second tradition goes back to the famous analytic class number for-mula of Dirichlet, but owes its modern revival to the conjecture of Birch andSwinnerton-Dyer. In practice however, it is the ideas of Iwasawa in this field onwhich we attempt to draw, and which to a large extent we have to replace. Theprinciples of Galois cohomology, and in particular the fundamental theoremsof Poitou and Tate, also play an important role here.The restriction that
ρ
3
be irreducible at 3 is bypassed by means of anintriguing argument with families of elliptic curves which share a common
ρ
5
. Using this, we complete the proof that all semistable elliptic curves aremodular. In particular, this finally yields a proof of Fermat’s Last Theorem. Inaddition, this method seems well suited to establishing that all elliptic curvesover
Q
are modular and to generalization to other totally real number fields.Now we present our methods and results in more detail.
 
MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT’S LAST THEOREM 445
Let
be an eigenform associated to the congruence subgroup Γ
1
(
) of SL
2
(
Z
) of weight
k
2 and character
χ.
Thus if 
n
is the Hecke operatorassociated to an integer
n
there is an algebraic integer
c
(
n,
) such that
n
=
c
(
n,
)
for each
n
. We let
be the number field generated over
Q
by the
{
c
(
n,
)
}
together with the values of 
χ
and let
O
be its ring of integers.For any prime
λ
of 
O
let
O
f,λ
be the completion of 
O
at
λ
. The followingtheorem is due to Eichler and Shimura (for
k
= 2) and Deligne (for
k >
2).The analogous result when
k
= 1 is a celebrated theorem of Serre and Delignebut is more naturally stated in terms of complex representations. The imagein that case is finite and a converse is known in many cases.
Theorem
0.1.
For each prime
p
Z
and each prime
λ
|
 p
of 
O
thereis a continuous representation 
ρ
f,λ
: Gal(¯
Q
/
Q
)
GL
2
(
O
f,λ
)
which is unramified outside the primes dividing 
Np
and such that for all primes
q
  
Np
,
trace
ρ
f,λ
(Frob
q
) =
c
(
q,
)
,
det
ρ
f,λ
(Frob
q
) =
χ
(
q
)
q
k
1
.
We will be concerned with trying to prove results in the opposite direction,that is to say, with establishing criteria under which a
λ
-adic representationarises in this way from a modular form. We have not found any advantagein assuming that the representation is part of a compatible system of 
λ
-adicrepresentations except that the proof may be easier for some
λ
than for others.Assume
ρ
0
: Gal(¯
Q
/
Q
)
GL
2
(¯
F
 p
)is a continuous representation with values in the algebraic closure of a finitefield of characteristic
p
and that det
ρ
0
is odd. We say that
ρ
0
is modularif 
ρ
0
and
ρ
f,λ
mod
λ
are isomorphic over¯
F
 p
for some
and
λ
and someembedding of 
O
in¯
F
 p
. Serre has conjectured that every irreducible
ρ
0
of odd determinant is modular. Very little is known about this conjecture exceptwhen the image of 
ρ
0
in PGL
2
(¯
F
 p
) is dihedral,
A
4
or
4
. In the dihedral caseit is true and due (essentially) to Hecke, and in the
A
4
and
4
cases it is againtrue and due primarily to Langlands, with one important case due to Tunnell(see Theorem 5.1 for a statement). More precisely these theorems actuallyassociate a form of weight one to the corresponding complex representationbut the versions we need are straightforward deductions from the complexcase. Even in the reducible case not much is known about the problem inthe form we have described it, and in that case it should be observed thatone must also choose the lattice carefully as only the semisimplification of 
ρ
f,λ
=
ρ
f,λ
mod
λ
is independent of the choice of lattice in
2
f,λ
.

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