IDT 873 Abstracts: Facts Jennifer MaddrellWoloshyn, V. E., Willoughby, T., Wood, E., & Pressley, M. (1990). Elaborative interrogationfacilitates adult learning of factual paragraphs. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(3),513-524.
Research Purpose and focus.
Woloshyn, Willoughby,Wood, and Pressley (1990) evaluateelaborative interrogation as a means of teaching facts. Two separate experiments wereconducted. While the second was performed after the results from the first were known, the purpose was the same, namely to evaluate whether encouraging learners to activate and elaborateupon relevant prior knowledge facilitates fact acquisition.
. In the first experiment, 80 college students participated in a single sessionstudy at a Canadian university. The students were randomly assigned to one of four experimentalconditions, including 1) elaborative interrogation, 2) imagery, 3) self-reference, and 4) readingcontrol groups. Those in the elaborative interrogation condition received accompanying “why” prompt questions on the slide and were asked to respond to the question. Those in the imagerycondition were asked to “create an image” of the fact and associate it with the university. Self-reference subjects were asked to consider whether the shown fact would influence a decision toattend the school. Reading-control subjects were prompted to “read the sentence out loud at arate that allows you to understand the fact.”The initial study consisted of four phases including 1) the instructions, 2) presentation of the study material, 3) tests which included both fact recall for each school and associativematching of the facts to the school, and 4) a post test interview which addressed the students’attention to the instructions, the difficulty of the task, and prior knowledge about the school. The20 students in each group viewed 43 slides which contained facts about the Canadian universitiesnot well known to those not attending the schools. However, the instructions to each groupdiffered based on the previously noted experimental condition.The second study included 240 college students from the same school, using the samematerials, and incorporating the same four phases. However, the focus was on longer paragraphs beyond the single sentences in the first experiment. In addition, a free-recall memory test wasincluded.
Results and conclusions.
While there were no significant differences between elaborativeinterrogation and imagery conditions, both groups performed significantly better than the readingcontrol condition in the test measures. Further, in the first experiment, the self-reference subjects performed significantly better on the associative matching test than the reading control group, but the difference was not deemed significant on the fact recall. In post test interviews, subjectsdeemed elaborative interrogation and imagery as more “difficult” and requiring “extra efforts”than the reading control group.These findings are important as they suggest that elaborative interrogation yields superior results to the reading alone. Further, elaborative interrogation was as effective as the other elaborative procedures studied.
The results of these experiments suggest that designers should incorporate elaborationstrategies when teaching facts. As seen in this experiment, prompting learners to elaborate beyond the presented fact (as in considering specific questions, creating mental images, or self-reflecting on the presented facts) provides greater support than simply presenting the fact alone.Page | 1Submitted 20081001