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Chinese MOG Operations in Africa_Conservation International

Chinese MOG Operations in Africa_Conservation International

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Published by Douglas Scott
This report compiles, maps and overlays Chinese mining, oil and gas extraction operations in eleven African countries where Conservation International has a significant presence. The report also outlines strategies for CI to catalyze a working relationship with perticular Chinese extraction firms.
This report compiles, maps and overlays Chinese mining, oil and gas extraction operations in eleven African countries where Conservation International has a significant presence. The report also outlines strategies for CI to catalyze a working relationship with perticular Chinese extraction firms.

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Published by: Douglas Scott on Aug 29, 2011
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09/27/2011

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Acknowledgements
This report was prepared by Douglas Ian Scott under the Trott Internship for Conservation International(CI). Special thanks go to: The CI Africa team, the Beijing Axis group, as well as friends and colleagues inAngola, Zimbabwe, Liberia, Madagascar, Johannesburg and Pretoria for all their assistance and advice.Particular thanks is given to Rowena Smuts (Mining Engagement Advisor at CI) based in the Cape Townoffice who conceptualised the project and supervised the research, Benoit Kisuki
i
, Sean Gilbert
ii
, MartinSneary
iii
, Kathryn Sturman and Chris Alden
iv
, Sanusha Naidu
v
, Yoon Jang Park
vi
, Johanna Jansson, LucyCorkin
vii
, and Peta Thornycraft. The Trott Family Foundation for kindly funding the research and CI forproviding the opportunity to conduct this research.Sean Gilbert and Chris Alden are both thanked for their comments provided on the draft report.All country maps displaying areas of environmental concern were compiled using the IntegratedBiodiversity and Assessment Tool (IBAT).
viii
 The opinions expressed in the report and any possible factual errors are the responsibility of the author.CI is not responsible for content derived from external sources.For further information please contactdouglas.i.scott@gmail.com orrsmuts@conservation.org or ecoppenger@conservation.org 
i
Conservation International Country Director for the DRC
ii
China Director at the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI)
iii
Senior Information Management Adviser at BirdLife International and Conservation International; IBAT project.
iv
Dr Kathryn Sturman and Dr Chris Alden are Project and Programme Heads respectively at the South AfricanInstitute of International Affairs (SAIIA). Particular thanks are given to Dr Chris Alden for reviewing this report.
v
Former Director of the Emerging Powers project at Fahamu now at the Human Sciences Research Council
vi
Formerly of the University of Johannesburg, Senior Researcher in the Centre for Sociological Research
vii
School of Oriental and African Studies, PhD candidate
viii
IBAT, retrieved: 3 March 2011, https://www.ibatforbusiness.org
 
 
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Executive Summary
The study aimed to address three main questions. Firstly, do Chinese mining, oil and gas (MOG)operations in Africa occur in areas of conservation value as defined by the Integrated Biodiversity andAssessment Tool (IBAT) and Conservation International (CI)
’s
geographic areas of interest? Secondly, if there are common areas of interest which countries and which companies should CI focus its efforts onwith respect to engaging Chinese actors. Thirdly, how should CI strategically pursue possiblecollaboration with select Chinese companies in order to ensure the conservation of biodiversity and theecosystem services that underpin human wellbeing in Africa.The body of this report is broken up into three sections. The first section provides background onChinese MOG investments in Africa, the importance of these investments to China, how this is changing,and describes the companies involved. The second section includes a country by country account of Chinese MOG activities accompanied by maps which illustrate their location in relation to areas of conservation value. The third section outlines five alternative strategies of engagement with therelevant Chinese extraction companies. The study was made possible through funding obtained for theTrott Internship and the research was undertaken over a 3 month period. The study relied primarily ondesktop research, reports from select African as well as international media sources, and interviews withprofessionals in Sino-African studies and the extractives industry.Chinese firms intend to continue expanding their extraction operations across the globe. Africa, alongwith Australasia and South East Asia have all seen an exponential increase in the number of Chinese
mining investments since 2004. Given China’s continuing rapid economic growth and indu
strialisationthis trend looks likely to continue for a number of years to come. Despite this rapid increase the actualnumber of Chinese extraction operations in the African countries identified through this desktop studywas less than would have been expected based on the literature.The Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) policies of Chinese companies today are in a similar state tothe CSR policies of their western peers in the mid-1990s. Although there is growing awareness and anincreasing interest in CSR and environmental impact mitigation policies by Chinese companies operatingoutside of China there is still considerable room for improvement with regards to how these companiesaddress environmental issues associated with their extraction activities.Chinese mining operations in Africa can be divided into two different types. Investments held anddriven by State Owned Enterprises (SOE) and private investments largely controlled by a small group of private individuals who happen to be Chinese nationals.The vast majority of the extraction operations described in this report involve Chinese SOE. Most of 
China’s investments
(both private and SOE) in African extraction projects are in the form of jointventures with all of the operations that Chinese SOE are involved in being joint ventures. Joint venturepartners are either public SOE owned by the local African government, privately owned local companies,

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