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APPsych Chapter2 Targets

APPsych Chapter2 Targets

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Published by: DuezAP on Aug 30, 2011
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AP Psych Duez Unit Plan - Chapter 2 "The Research Enterprise in Psychology"Themes: Psychology is Empircal & People's experience of the world can be highly sujective.Scientific Approach:
3 Laws of nature that can be discovered through empirical approach: 1 measurement & description of behavior 2 understanding and predicting behavior 3 application of this knowledge to the task of controllingbehavior
Theories
permit psychologists to make the leap of behavior to understanding behavior
Scientific investigation that follows a systematic pattern that includes 5 steps: 1 formulate testable
hypothesis
; 2 select the research method & design the study; 3 collect data; 4 analyze the data & drawconclusions; 5 report findings
2 major advantages to scientific approach: 1 clarity in communication; 2 relative intolerance of error
Experimental Approach:
Involves manipulation of 
independent
 
variable
to ascertain its effect on
dependent
 
variable
. Research isdone by comparing experimental & control groups, which must be alike in regard to important extraneous
variables
.
Experimental designs may vary. And experiments are powerful research method that permits conclusionsabout
cause-and-effect relationships
between variables. However, experimental method is often notuseable for a specific problem & can be artificial.
Descriptive/Correlational Research:
When unable to manipulate the variables they want to study, can rely on this approach -
naturalisticobservation, case studies, & surveys.
Allow psychologists to explore issues that might not be open to experimental investigation. Also less artificialthan experiments. However, these research methods cannot demonstrate
cause-effect relationships.Statistics & Research:
Measures of 
central tendency & variability
- organize & summarize their numerical data.
Mean, median, mode
widely used measures of 
central tendency
.
Variability
is usually measured by
standard deviation
.
Correlations
may be either positive or negative. The closer the correlation is to either +1.00 or -1.00, thestronger the association is. Higher correlations yield greater predictability. However, a correlation is noassurance of causation.
Hypothesis
testing involves deciding whether observed findings support researcher's hypothesis. Significantonly when unlikely to be due to chance.Anecdotal evidenceCase studyConfounding ovariablesControl GroupCorrelationCorrelationcoefficientData collectiontechniquesDependent variablesDescriptivestatisticsDouble-blindprocedureExperimental biasExperimentalvariablesHypothesisIndependentvariableInferential StatisticsMeanMedianMeta-analysisModeNaturalisticobservationOperationaldefinitionPlacebo effectsRandom assignmentResponse setSampling biasSocial desirablilitybiasStandard deviationStatisticalsignificanceVariabilityVariables
Major points to understand:
1. Observation is the most important aspect of psychological research.2. Operationalism means to define our variables in the manner in which we are going to measure them.3. Correlation measures degree of relationship between variables and ranges from -1 to +1.4. Correlation does not imply causation.5. Independent variables are controlled by researchers, while dependent variables are what researchersare measuring. (remember, dependent variable is dependent upon the independent variable)6. Experimental, correlational, and descriptive methods all have strengths and weaknesses indescribing human behavior.7. Descriptive statistics describe the data gathered in research, while inferential statistics allow us todraw conclusions about how this data can be generalized to a larger population.8. Following ethical principles is vitally important in any kind of psychological research. *emphasizedon resent AP exams*

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