The Republic of Tatarstan
Tatars: General Information
Te atar language is one o the urkic languages along with such languages as urkish, Uzbek, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Azeri, Uygur etc. It is spoken throughout the territory o modern day Russia, and there are atar diasporas in mostormer Soviet Union republics (Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan,Kyrgyzstan, Ukraine), urkey, China, Japan, Poland,Finland, USA, Australia etc. Te atar language is one o two ocial languages in the Republic o atarstan, whichis a part o the Russian Federation.Te atar people have a long history, which connects toancient urkic states such as the Hunn Empire, urkicKhanates, and Te Great Bulgaria. In the VII-IX centuries Volga Bulgaria was ormed on the territory o modern a-tarstan. Te ocial adoption o Islam in 922 played a bigrole in the atars’ history. Along with the religion, theatars also adopted an Arabic script and a lot o Arabic words. In 1236 the Mongols conquered Volga Bulgariaand added it to the Golden Horde. With its collapse inthe XIV century, the Kazan, Siberian, Astrakhan andKasim khanates continued their existence as successorstates o the Golden Horde. In 1552 Ivan IV “the er-rible” invaded Kazan, and since then atars have lived asa part o the Russian Empire. In 1920 they created theatarstan Autonomous Soviet Socialistic Republic, andthe script changed rom Arabic to Latin and then romLatin to Cyrillic. Te vocabulary also underwent bigchanges because o the inuence o the Russian language.In 1990, with the collapse o the USSR, the Republic o atarstan became a sovereign republic within the RussianFederation. atar diasporas around the world appeared indiferent eras starting with the Golden Horde period (orexample, atars in Lithuania and Poland), the RussianEmpire period (atars in urkey and Finland), the Rus-sian Revolutioniary period (atars in China, urkey and Japan), and the Soviet period (atars in the USA, Austra-lia, Canada, and ormer Soviet Union republics etc.)Now Kazan, the capital o atarstan, is a cultural center o the atar people. Every two years, atars rom all over the world gather or World atar Congress in Kazan.Te atar language has three dialects: Kazan, Misharand Siberian. Historically the Kazan dialect serves as theliterary language or all atars. While communicating with diferent atars rom diferent parts o the world,one may hear diferent, easily understandable variants o atar which can be explained by the historical appear-ance and location o the diasporas. For instance, the atardiasporas that moved beore the Soviet Union period donot speak Russian and do not use the vast amounts o Russian borrowings that atars in Russia use.