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How to Build Shaker Furniture

How to Build Shaker Furniture

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Published by: F&W, a Content and eCommerce Company on Aug 30, 2011
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10/14/2013

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1
THE SHAKERSTYLE
The Creative Process
The creative process does not take place in a vacuum. Certain remem-brances are at play when a craftsman designs a piece of furniture, a cer-tain vocabulary is used in producing the form. The language he speaks,all those three-dimensional designs he has lived in, on, or near, indeed hiswhole past and present, are the wellsprings of his creativity. It was Ten-nysons Ulysses who said, “I am part of all that I have seen, and all I haveseen is a part of me.” In a sense, it can be argued that there is no suchthing as pure creativity, that at best we can recreate with a slight improve-ment here or there. Design is synthesis, the reordering of existing partsinto a new whole. This process is universal. The Egyptian craftsman of funeral boxes, the unknown Renaissance cabinetmaker, Thomas Jeffersonin laying out the University of Virginia-all were synthesizers who borrowedimages from their surroundings and produced forms of utility and joy. As a designer and builder of furniture I see myself as a synthesizer.The drawings and photographs contained herein represent a blending of antique Shaker forms and contemporary forms. None of these are totally original designs, nor are they copies. I guess we are safe in saying thatthey are a composite, a synthesis, of the best of a number of worlds.If we approach the study of Shaker furniture with this as a fundamen-tal premise, a needed objectivity is attained. To understand Shaker designone must understand what the Shakers were and what their man-made visual world consisted of.
10
CHAPTER ONE
 
THE SHAKERS:A NINETEENTH-CENTURY GENIUS
In 1774 Mother Ann Lee, founder of the Shaker sect, and eightfollowers, traveled from Manchester, England, to the New  World in search of greater freedom of religious expression.She was herself strongly influenced by the Religious Society of Friends, or Quakers. In their early years this new collectiv-ity came to be called “Shaking Quakers,” a term derived fromcertain movements performed in their liturgy. This namewas later shortened to Shakers, although the sect is officially known as the United Society of Believers in Christ’s Second Ap-pearing. Like the Quakers, the Shakers were pacifists who avoid-ed politics, theater, strong drink and “vain amusements” of every sort. They wore simple clothing, spoke in simple terms, lived insimple surroundings. Their way of life was clearly the antith-esis of materialism. Today a single stone marks the graves of allat New Gloucester, Maine. On its face is inscribed ‘SHAKERS.”The earliest Shaker settlements were at Watervliet andLebanon, New York; Hancock and Harvard, Massachusetts; andEnfield, Connecticut. Later, as the number of converts grew, set-tlements were established in Maine and New Hampshire. By themiddle of the nineteenth century there was a total of nineteencommunities extending as far west as Pleasant Hill, Kentucky.Not unlike other sects of the periods, such as the OneidaCommunity in upstate New York, the Amana group of Iowa,and the idealists of New Harmony, Indiana, the Shakers envi-sioned a religious, political and social utopia. Celibacy, com-munal ownership of property, and a reverence for perfection inwork characterized their lives. It is all but impossible for us inthe 21st century to understand, let alone empathize with, thispervasive selflessness. Yet in this chapter of American history,Shakerism flourished, both spiritually and economically. TheShakers achieved a social order based upon equality, sharing,and personal anonymity. At the heart of the creed was Christ’sSecond Coming, for, as set down by Mother Ann Lee, Christwas ever present within the soul of each member and withinthe community per se. This presence is made manifest in allaspects of Shaker life, particularly in the products of theircraftsmanship. Her admonitions, “Put your hands to work and your hearts to God,” and “Do your work as though you had athousand years to live, and as if you were to die tomorrow,
A classic Shaker ladderback rocker. This piece is in the collection atthe Pleasant Hill Shaker Village in Kentucky. Plans to build this type of chair can be found on page 154.
THE SHAKER STYLE
11
 
serve as a philosophic/religious basis for a high level of perfec-tion in craftsmanship. The overriding characteristics of Shakerwork are unity and simplicity. Unity of material and functionbespeak the functionalism of a much later day where orderand system are the cornerstones. To the Shakers, ornamenta-tion of any sort was considered vanity, useless ostentation.Simplicity, simplicity, simplicity.This adherence to economy of form had its detractorsoutside the community. Upon visiting a Shaker room at Mt.Lebanon, Charles Dickens wrote, “We walked into a grim room,where several grim hats were hanging on grim pegs and thetime was grimly told by a grim clock.” Had Dickens been born ahundred years later, he might well have used another, less pejo-rative adjective, for he saw Shakerism from a Victorian’s perspec-tive, which was colored by burdensome levels of ornamentation. What is most awesome is the sheer volume of Shaker in- ventiveness. They are reputed to have invented the automaticwashing machine, the circular saw, the steel pen, water-repel-lent clothing, the one-piece clothespin, the self-feeding surfaceplaner, and much more. How was it that a movement consist-ing of fewer than six thousand souls at its height, around 1850,could produce such a prodigious array of inventions, machin-ery, foodstuffs, medicines, and products for farm and home?To the followers of Mother Ann, time “was the taskmasterof toil.” The artifacts left by the collective genius of the Shak-ers are testimony to their abiding need for efficiency as well asself-sufficiency. Few things were purchased from “the world,and in the early days few things were sold. As their numbersand strength grew, of course, commerce led them to greaterlevels of economic assimilation. Indeed, it was this assimila-tion, and the advent of true industrialism, that sounded theirdeath knell in the twentieth century.Today, the Shaker community consists of only three mem-bers at the Sabbathday Lake, Maine community. They functionas repositors and custodians of the movement, and new mem-bers are welcome. For details visitwww.shaker.lib.me.us.Indeed, as a relevant contemporary religious and economicforce, the sect has only minor influence now. However, theartifacts left by this relatively small group have never before socaptivated and moved us.
SHAKER ANTIQUES
Over the last sixty years Shaker furniture has been “discovered. Any discussion of American decorative arts now includes asection on Shaker design, and no comprehensive Americanmuseum of any size could function without a Shaker Collec-tion. Indeed, during a visit to the American Museum in Bath,England, my wife and I were delighted to find there one of themost exquisite collections of early nineteenth century Shakerfurniture and household tools. The warm reception of thisstyle by the English attests to its international appeal. Thisreceptivity is shared by the Japanese, who are enchanted by these clean, uniform lines.In the antiques market Shaker items command unheard-of prices. Recently, at an auction dedicated exclusively to Shakerartifacts in Kezar Falls, Maine, an ordinary grain sack bearingthe Shaker name was reportedly sold for $240. Sets of the smallwooden oval boxes, which were produced in New Gloucesterscarcely a generation ago, are now selling for hundreds andhundreds of dollars. I remember hearing the story that after World War II an entire meetinghouse full of Shaker chairs wasput to the torch because they were considered unmarketable.Today an authentic Shaker chair fetches upwards of $800.Two years ago we contributed a small round stand of ourmanufacture to a local television auction. The auctioneer,thinking at first it was an original Shaker piece, exclaimed thatthe bidding should start at $1,400. The table, because it wasnot of Shaker origin, sold for one tenth that amount.One cannot visit an antique shop without finding a hordeof so-called Shaker collectables. In just one issue of an an-tiques magazine published here in Maine no fewer thanseventeen furniture items were advertised as being ‘genuineShaker. Enormous prices, coupled with a real dearth of supply,
This cupboard on chest shows a style of drawer graduation that wehave come to regard as normal, with the larger drawer at the bottomand its smallest drawer at the top.
12
CHAPTER ONE

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