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he strategies in this appendix will help you find reliable, accurateinformation from the library and the Internet as you conductresearch for your courses. More detailed information about Internetresearch can be found in
The Prentice Hall Guide to Evaluating OnlineResources with Research Navigator
and through online access atwww.researchnavigator.com, both of which accompany the purchase of this text.
Consider the library to be the “brain” of your college. The library is andwill continue to be your most reliable information source—so much so thatinstructors expect to see library research citations in your work.
Start with a Road Map
The better you know the “road map” of your library, the less time you’llspend searching for elusive materials. Here are some key resources.
Circulation desk.
All publications are checked out at the circulation desk,which is usually near the library entrance.
Reference area.
Here you’ll find reference books, including encyclopedias,directories, dictionaries, almanacs, and atlases. You’ll also find libraryemployees who can direct you to information. Computer terminals,containing the library’s catalog of holdings, as well as online bibliographicand full-text databases, are usually part of the reference area.
Keys to College Studying:Becoming an Active Thinker,
Second Edition, by Carol Carter, Joyce Bishop, and Sarah Lyman Kravits.Published by Pearson Prentice Hall.Copyright ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Conducting Research
Book area.
Books—and, in many libraries, magazines and journals in boundor boxed volumes—are stored in the
A library with
open stacks
allows you to search for materials. In a
system, a staff memberretrieves materials for you.
Periodicals area.
Here you’ll find recent issues of popular and scholarlymagazines, journals, and newspapers.
 Audio-visual materials areas.
Many libraries have special locations whereyou can study non-print materials including video, art and photography,and recorded music collections.
Electronic library resources.
Computer terminals, linked to college data-bases and the Internet, may be scattered throughout the library or clusteredin specific areas. Most schools have network systems or library websitesthat allow access to online library materials via personal computer.Almost all college libraries offer orientation sessions on how to find whatyou need. If you need help, take a real or virtual tour and sign up for training.
Information Search Basics
The most successful and time-saving method for information retrievalinvolves a practical, step-by-step search that takes you from general tospecific sources. At any point in your search, you can conduct a
search—a method for locating sources through the use of topic-related wordsand phrases. A keyword is any natural-language word or phrase that is usedas a point of reference to locate other information. To narrow your topic andreduce the number of “hits” (resources pulled up by your search) add morekeywords. For example, instead of searching through the broad category
focus on
French art 
or, more specifically
 ,nineteenth-century French art.
Key A.1provides tips for using the keyword system. The last three entriesdescribe how to use “or,” “and,” and “not” to narrow searches with what iscalled
Boolean logic.
Start with general reference works.
These works cover topics in a broad,nondetailed way and are often available in print, online, or on CD-ROM.Examples of general reference works include encyclopedias, almanacs,dictionaries, biographical references (such as
Webster’s Biographical Dictionary
), and bibliographies (such as
Books in Print 
). Scan these sourcesfor a topic overview and more specialized sources.
Search specialized reference works.
Turn next to
specialized reference works
for more specific facts. Specialized reference works include encyclopedias
Keys to College Studying:Becoming an Active Thinker,
Second Edition, by Carol Carter, Joyce Bishop, and Sarah Lyman Kravits.Published by Pearson Prentice Hall.Copyright ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Conducting Research
anddictionaries that focus on a narrow field (such as the
Encyclopedia of American History
). Although the entries in these volumes are short sum-maries, they focus on critical ideas and introduce keywords you can use toconduct additional research. Bibliographies that accompany the articles pointto the works of recognized experts. Your library can help you access a
subject  guide
that will direct you to lists of specialized reference works, organized bysubject. A keyword search may help you find such works.
Browse through books and articles on your subject.
Use the computerizedlibrary catalog or the results of your keyword search to find books and othermaterials on your topic. The catalog, searchable by author, title, and subject,tells you which publications the library owns. Each catalog listing refers tothe library’s classification system, which in turn tells you exactly where tofind the publication.
include journals, magazines, and newspapers.
arewritten for readers with specialized knowledge (while
magazinemay run a general-interest article on AIDS research, for example, the
 Journal of the American Medical Association
may print the original scientific studyfor an audience of doctors and scientists). Many libraries display periodicalsthat are up to a year or two old, and they usually convert older copies tomicrofilm or microfiche. Many full-text articles are also available online.
Key A.1
Perform an effective keyword search.
Type the word normally.Type the phrase in its normal word order(use regular word spacing) or surround thephrase with quotation marks.Type the words in any order,surroundingthe words with quotation marks.Use
to separate the words.Type the words in any order,surroundingthe words with quotation marks.Use
toseparate the words.Type topic A first within quotation marks,and then topic B within quotation marks.Use
to separate the words. A word A phraseTwo or more keywordswithout regard to word orderTopic A or topic BTopic A but not topic B Aidfinancial aid or“financial aid”“financial aid”and“scholarships”“financial aid”or“scholarships”“financial aid”not“scholarships”
Keys to College Studying:Becoming an Active Thinker,
Second Edition, by Carol Carter, Joyce Bishop, and Sarah Lyman Kravits.Published by Pearson Prentice Hall.Copyright ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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