International Journal of Computational Intelligence and Information Security, August 2011 Vol. 2, No. 8
Simulation and Analysis of Spread Spectrum Techniques Using MATLAB
Dr. Anil Kumar Sharma* and Dinesh Kumar Sain**
*Associate Professor, Department of Electronics and Communication EngineeringInstitute of Engineering and Technology, Alwar-301 030, Rajasthan, IndiaE-mail:aks_826@Yahoo.co.in**M. Tech Scholar, Department of Electronics and Communication EngineeringInstitute of Engineering and Technology, Alwar-301 030, Rajasthan, IndiaE-mail: email@example.com
Wireless communication plays an integral part in our daily life. Cellular phones are quite common and wecan hardly imagine life without them. Spread spectrum is the technology that holds the potential to revolutionizethe world of wireless communication. Spread Spectrum (SS) is particularly favorite in military because of its lowprobability of interception which means that it is difficult for eavesdroppers to listen in. It also has anti-jammingcapabilities which means that unauthorized sources cannot transmit false information to mislead or deceive thereceiver. Spread Spectrum is a technique that takes a narrow band radio signal and spreads it over a broaderportion of the Radio Frequency (RF) Spectrum. The two main type of spread spectrum systems in use today areFrequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) and Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS). DSSS is one of the most practical spread spectrum systems around because of its digital nature. The use of these special PseudoNoise codes in Spread Spectrum communications makes signals appear wide-band and noise-like. It is this verycharacteristic that makes SS signals possessing the quality of Low Probability of Intercept. SS signals are hard todetect on narrow band equipment because the signal's energy is spread over a bandwidth of around 100 times,the information bandwidth. The spread of energy over a wide band, or lower power spectral density makes SSsignals less likely to interfere with narrowband communications. Narrow band communications, conversely,cause little to no interference to SS systems.
Amplitude Shift keying (ASK), Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS), Frequncy HoppingSpread Spectrum (FHSS), Frequency Shift Keying (FSK), Phase Shift Keying(PSK).
Modulation is a process of varying a carrier signal in order to use that signal to convey information. Thethree key parameters of a sinusoidal waveform are its amplitude, its phase and its frequency, all of which can bemodified in accordance with an information signal to obtain the modulated signal. There are several reasons tomodulate a signal before transmission. These includes the ability of different users sharing a medium (multipleaccess), and making the signal properties physically compatible with the propagation medium. There two typesof modulation schemes which depend on information signal are Analog Modulation and Digital Modulation.Modulation is known as Analog Modulation, if information signal is analog signal. There are many ways tomodulate analog signals: Amplitude Modulation, Frequency Modulation, Phase Modulation and PulseModulation. Digital signals need to be processed by an intermediate stage for conversion into analog signals fortransmission. There are three major classes of Digital Modulation techniques for transmission of digitallyrepresented data. All convey data by changing some aspect of a base signal, the carrier wave (usually a sinusoid)in response to a data signal. The digital techniques are: Amplitude Shift Keying, Frequency shift Keying andPhase shift Keying.
Spread Spectrum Techniques
The two popular forms of spread spectrum technique are Direct Sequence and Frequency Hopping.Direct Sequence is one of the most popular forms of spread spectrum as a result of the simplicity with whichdirect sequencing can be implemented. In this form of modulation, a pseudo-random noise generator creates a