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Paper-4_Simulation and Analysis of Spread Spectrum Techniques Using MATLAB

Paper-4_Simulation and Analysis of Spread Spectrum Techniques Using MATLAB

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Published by ijciiseditor
Wireless communication plays an integral part in our daily life. Cellular phones are quite common and we can hardly imagine life without them. Spread spectrum is the technology that holds the potential to revolutionize the world of wireless communication. Spread Spectrum (SS) is particularly favorite in military because of its low probability of interception which means that it is difficult for eavesdroppers to listen in. It also has anti-jamming capabilities which means that unauthorized sources cannot transmit false information to mislead or deceive the receiver. Spread Spectrum is a technique that takes a narrow band radio signal and spreads it over a broader portion of the Radio Frequency (RF) Spectrum. The two main type of spread spectrum systems in use today are Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) and Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS). DSSS is one of the most practical spread spectrum systems around because of its digital nature. The use of these special Pseudo Noise codes in Spread Spectrum communications makes signals appear wide-band and noise-like. It is this very characteristic that makes SS signals possessing the quality of Low Probability of Intercept. SS signals are hard to detect on narrow band equipment because the signal's energy is spread over a bandwidth of around 100 times, the information bandwidth. The spread of energy over a wide band, or lower power spectral density makes SS signals less likely to interfere with narrowband communications. Narrow band communications, conversely, cause little to no interference to SS systems.
Wireless communication plays an integral part in our daily life. Cellular phones are quite common and we can hardly imagine life without them. Spread spectrum is the technology that holds the potential to revolutionize the world of wireless communication. Spread Spectrum (SS) is particularly favorite in military because of its low probability of interception which means that it is difficult for eavesdroppers to listen in. It also has anti-jamming capabilities which means that unauthorized sources cannot transmit false information to mislead or deceive the receiver. Spread Spectrum is a technique that takes a narrow band radio signal and spreads it over a broader portion of the Radio Frequency (RF) Spectrum. The two main type of spread spectrum systems in use today are Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) and Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS). DSSS is one of the most practical spread spectrum systems around because of its digital nature. The use of these special Pseudo Noise codes in Spread Spectrum communications makes signals appear wide-band and noise-like. It is this very characteristic that makes SS signals possessing the quality of Low Probability of Intercept. SS signals are hard to detect on narrow band equipment because the signal's energy is spread over a bandwidth of around 100 times, the information bandwidth. The spread of energy over a wide band, or lower power spectral density makes SS signals less likely to interfere with narrowband communications. Narrow band communications, conversely, cause little to no interference to SS systems.

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International Journal of Computational Intelligence and Information Security, August 2011 Vol. 2, No. 8
 
30
Simulation and Analysis of Spread Spectrum Techniques Using MATLAB
Dr. Anil Kumar Sharma* and Dinesh Kumar Sain**
*Associate Professor, Department of Electronics and Communication EngineeringInstitute of Engineering and Technology, Alwar-301 030, Rajasthan, IndiaE-mail:aks_826@Yahoo.co.in**M. Tech Scholar, Department of Electronics and Communication EngineeringInstitute of Engineering and Technology, Alwar-301 030, Rajasthan, IndiaE-mail: dksain@yahoo.com
Abstract
Wireless communication plays an integral part in our daily life. Cellular phones are quite common and wecan hardly imagine life without them. Spread spectrum is the technology that holds the potential to revolutionizethe world of wireless communication. Spread Spectrum (SS) is particularly favorite in military because of its lowprobability of interception which means that it is difficult for eavesdroppers to listen in. It also has anti-jammingcapabilities which means that unauthorized sources cannot transmit false information to mislead or deceive thereceiver. Spread Spectrum is a technique that takes a narrow band radio signal and spreads it over a broaderportion of the Radio Frequency (RF) Spectrum. The two main type of spread spectrum systems in use today areFrequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) and Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS). DSSS is one of the most practical spread spectrum systems around because of its digital nature. The use of these special PseudoNoise codes in Spread Spectrum communications makes signals appear wide-band and noise-like. It is this verycharacteristic that makes SS signals possessing the quality of Low Probability of Intercept. SS signals are hard todetect on narrow band equipment because the signal's energy is spread over a bandwidth of around 100 times,the information bandwidth. The spread of energy over a wide band, or lower power spectral density makes SSsignals less likely to interfere with narrowband communications. Narrow band communications, conversely,cause little to no interference to SS systems.
Keywords:
Amplitude Shift keying (ASK), Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS), Frequncy HoppingSpread Spectrum (FHSS), Frequency Shift Keying (FSK), Phase Shift Keying(PSK).
1. Introduction
Modulation is a process of varying a carrier signal in order to use that signal to convey information. Thethree key parameters of a sinusoidal waveform are its amplitude, its phase and its frequency, all of which can bemodified in accordance with an information signal to obtain the modulated signal. There are several reasons tomodulate a signal before transmission. These includes the ability of different users sharing a medium (multipleaccess), and making the signal properties physically compatible with the propagation medium. There two typesof modulation schemes which depend on information signal are Analog Modulation and Digital Modulation.Modulation is known as Analog Modulation, if information signal is analog signal. There are many ways tomodulate analog signals: Amplitude Modulation, Frequency Modulation, Phase Modulation and PulseModulation. Digital signals need to be processed by an intermediate stage for conversion into analog signals fortransmission. There are three major classes of Digital Modulation techniques for transmission of digitallyrepresented data. All convey data by changing some aspect of a base signal, the carrier wave (usually a sinusoid)in response to a data signal. The digital techniques are: Amplitude Shift Keying, Frequency shift Keying andPhase shift Keying.
2.
Spread Spectrum Techniques
The two popular forms of spread spectrum technique are Direct Sequence and Frequency Hopping.Direct Sequence is one of the most popular forms of spread spectrum as a result of the simplicity with whichdirect sequencing can be implemented. In this form of modulation, a pseudo-random noise generator creates a
 
 
International Journal of Computational Intelligence and Information Security, August 2011 Vol. 2, No. 8
 
31high-speed pseudo-noise code sequence. This sequence is transmitted at a maximum bit rate called the chip rate.The pseudo-random code sequence is used to directly modulate the narrow-band carrier signal; thus, it directlysets the transmitted radio frequency bandwidth. The chip rate has a direct correlation to the spread of theinformation. The information is demodulated at the receiving end by multiplying the signal by a locallygenerated version of the pseudo-random code sequence. Another popular form of implementing spread spectrumwhich takes entirely different approach is Frequency Hopping in which spreading takes place by hopping fromfrequency to frequency over a wide band. The specific order in which the hopping occurs is determined by ahopping table generated with the help of a pseudo-random code sequence. The rate of hopping is a function of the information rate. The order of frequencies that is selected by the receiver is dictated by the pseudo-randomnoise sequence while the transmitted spectrum of a frequency-hopping signal is quite different from that of adirect sequence signal. In both cases, the resultant signal appears noise-like and the receiver utilizes a similartechnique to the one employed in transmitting in order to recover the original signal. There are many advantagesof using spread spectrum. Since spread-spectrum receivers can effectively ignore narrow-band transmissions, itis possible to share the same frequency band with other users. These users can weather a significant degree of overlap without interference effects. In both mechanisms discussed above, a pseudo-random noise sequence wasemployed—either to directly modulate the signal or to determine the order of frequencies in the hopping table.Since this pseudo-random signal makes the transmitted signal appear as noise, only receivers possessing theproper duplicate pseudo-random noise code sequence will be able to recover the signal. This fact has greatimplications for ensuring the privacy of point-to-point or point to multi-point communications as the case maybe. In Spread Spectrum systems, the signal spreading code is called as Pseudo noise sequence and there is nointerference with other signals. As the signal is spread over the wider bandwidth, therefore interception and jamming of signal will become difficult. It can be operated at the same frequency at which present narrow bandsystems are operating. The Spread Spectrum systems are the ability of these systems to reject interference thatotherwise might prohibit useful communications. In a DSSS system, it spreads the baseband data by directlymultiplying the baseband data pulses with a pseudo-noise sequence which is produced by a pseudo-noise codegenerator. The spreading code spreads the signal across a wider band which is in direct proportion to the numberof bits used. The advantages of FHSS are the large system bandwidth, relatively short acquisition time and lessdistance effect. It can be programmed to avoid some portion of spectrum. The disadvantages of FHSS are that itrequires complex frequency synthesizer and error correction. It is not useful for range and range ratemeasurement.
 
3.
Simulation of DSSS and FHSS
 
The MATLAB simulation of DSSS and FHSS is obtained using bit pattern and pseudorandom sequence.The Fast Fourier Transform of DSSS and FHSS are also obtained. Figure1 shows The Original Bit Sequence, Fig2. shows The Pseudorandom Bit Sequence, which is used to obtain Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum. InFigure3. The Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Curve is depicted. Figure 4. shows The Fast Fourier Transformof DSSS and Figure 5 The Original Bit Sequence, BPSK Modulated signal and Spread Signal. The simulatedresults of The FHSS and its FFT Curve are shown in Figure 6 and Figure7 shows the Power Vs Frequency Curveof DSSS. Finally in Figure8. the Power Vs Frequency Curve of FHSS is shown.
Figure 1: The Original Bit Sequence
 
 
International Journal of Computational Intelligence and Information Security, August 2011 Vol. 2, No. 8
 
32
Figure 2: The Pseudorandom Bit SequenceFigure 3: The Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum CurveFigure 4: The Fast Fourier Transform of DSSS

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