International Journal of Computational Intelligence and Information Security, August 2011 Vol. 2, No. 8
This command is used by either the call agent or the gateway to delete an existing connection.The response includes a list of parameters about the status of the connection.•
: If a call agent wants to be informed about the occurrence of specified events in an endpoint,then it can send this request to the gateway. Events could be: off hook transition, flash-hook, continuity tonedetection, etc. A notification may be requested for a continuity tone detection event in a gateway.•
: The response to the Notification Request is sent via the Notify command by the gateway. The notifycommand includes a list of events that the gateway observed.•
The Audit Endpoint
: This command is used by the call agent to get details about the status of an endpoint/severalendpoints and the response from the gateway contains the requested information.•
The Audit Connection
: To obtain information for a specific connection of an endpoint, the call agent uses thiscommand. The connection is identified by the ConnectionId and the response from the gateway contains therequested information.•
The Restart in Progress
: This command is used by the gateway to indicate that an endpoint or a bunch of endpointshave been taken in/out of service. It also includes a parameter that indicates the type of restart (graceful restart/ forced restart/delayed restart).,-.
5. Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) & Real-time Transport Control Protocol (RTCP)
Professedreal-time delivery of traffic requires little in the way of transport protocol. Meticulously, real-time traffic that is sent overmore than slight distances is not retransmit table. In reality, a number of facets of an end-to-end protocol need to be re-designed or refined including:a.
The Separate Flows for each Media Stream:
With packet multimedia data there is no need for the different mediacomprising a session to be carried in the same packets. In fact it simplifies receivers if different media streams arecarried in separate flows (i.e., separate transport ports and/or separate multicast groups). This also allows thedifferent media to be given different quality of service.b.
The Receiver Adaptation
: Best-effort traffic is delayed by queues in routers between the sender and the receivers.Even reserved priority traffic may see small transient queues in routers, and so packets comprising a flow will bedelayed for different times. Such delay variance is known as jitter. Real-time applications such as audio and videoneed to be able to buffer real-time data at the receiver for sufficient time to remove the jitter added by the network and recover the original timing relationships between the media data. In order to know how long to buffer, eachpacket must carry a timestamp which gives the time at the sender when the data was captured.c.
As audio and video flows will receive differing jitter and possibly differing quality of service,audio and video that were captured at the same time at the sender may not arrive at the receiver at the same time. Atthe receiver, each flow will need a play-out buffer to remove network jitter. -.
5.1. The Supporting of RTP
: It supports the transfer of real-time media (audio and video) over packet switchednetworks. The transport protocol must allow the receiver to detect any losses in packets and also provide timing informationso that the receiver can correctly compensate for delay jitter. The RTP header contains information that assist the receiver toreconstruct the media and also contains information specifying how the codec bit streams are broken up into packets. RTPdoes not reserve resources in the network but instead it provides information so that the receiver can recover in the presence of loss and jitter. The functions provided by RTP include:a.
The sequence number in the RTP packet is used for detecting lost packetsb.
The Payload Identification:
In the Internet, it is often required to change the encoding of the media dynamically toadjust to changing bandwidth availability. To provide this functionality, a payload identifier is included in each RTPpacket to describe the encoding of the mediac.
The Frame Indication:
Video and audio are sent in logical units called frames. To indicate the beginning and end of the frame, a frame marker bit has been provided
The Source Identification:
In a multicast session, we have many participants. So an identifier is required to determinethe originator of the frame. For this Synchronization Source (SSRC) identifier has been provided.e.
The Intramedia Synchronization:
To compensate for the different delay jitter for packets within the same stream,RTP provides timestamps, which are needed by the play-out buffers. .
5.2. The Convergence of RTCP with RTP
It is a control protocol and works in conjunction with RTP. In a RTPsession, participants periodically send RTCP packets to obtain useful information about QoS etc. The additional services thatRTCP provides to the participants are:a.
The QoS feedback
RTCP is used to report the quality of service. The information provided includes number of lostpackets, Round Trip Time, jitter and this information is used by the sources to adjust their data rate.b.
The Session Control:
By the use of the BYE packet, RTCP allows participants to indicate that they are leaving asessionc.
Information such as email address, name and phone number are included in the RTCP packets sothat all the users can know the identities of the other users for that session.