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Basic concepts of electric circuits
Objectives
1.1 Introduction
1.1.1 Why study electric circuits?
1.1.2 Careers in electrical, electronic and computer engineering
1.1.3 Milestones of electric circuit theory
1.2 Electric circuits and schematic diagrams
1.2.1 Basic electric circuits
1.2.2 Circuit schematics (diagrams) and symbols
1.3 Electric current
1.3.1 Current
1.3.2 Ammeter
1.3.3 The direction of electric current
1.4 Electric voltage
1.4.1 Voltage/electromotive force
1.4.2 Potential difference/voltage
1.4.3 Voltmeter
1.5 Resistance and Ohm’s law
1.5.1 Resistor
1.5.2 Factors affecting resistance
1.5.3 Ohmmeter
1.5.4 Conductance
1.5.5 Ohm’s law
1.5.6 Memory aid for Ohm’s law
1.5.7 The experimental circuit of Ohm’s law
1.5.8 I–V characteristic of Ohm’s law
1.5.9 Conductance form of Ohm’s law
1.6 Reference direction of voltage and current
1.6.1 Reference direction of current
1.6.2 Reference polarity of voltage
1.6.3 Mutually related reference polarity of current/voltage
Summary
Experiment 1: Resistor colour code
Basic laws of electric circuits
2.1 Power and energy
2.1.1 Work
2.1.2 Energy
2.1.3 Power
2.1.4 The reference direction of power
2.2 Kirchhoff’s voltage law (KVL)
2.2.1 Closed-loop circuit
2.2.2 Kirchoff’s voltage law #1
2.2.3 KVL #2
2.2.4 Experimental circuit of KVL
2.2.5 KVL extension
2.2.6 The physical property of KVL
2.3 Kirchhoff’s current law (KCL)
2.3.1 KCL #1
2.3.2 KCL #2
2.3.3 Physical property of KCL
2.3.4 Procedure to solve a complicated problem
2.3.5 Supernode
2.3.6 Several important circuit terminologies
2.4 Voltage source and current source
2.4.1 Voltage source
2.4.1.1 Ideal voltage source
2.4.1.2 Real voltage source
2.4.2 Current source
2.4.2.1 Ideal current source
2.4.2.2 Real current source
2.5 International units for circuit quantities
2.5.1 International system of units (SI)
2.5.2 Metric prefixes (SI prefixes)
Experiment 2: KVL and KCL
Series–parallel resistive circuits
series–parallel resistive circuits
3.1 Series resistive circuits and voltage-divider rule
3.1.1 Series resistive circuits
3.1.1.1 Total series voltage
3.1.1.2 Total series resistance (or equivalent resistance)
3.1.1.3 Series current
3.1.1.4 Series power
3.1.2 Voltage-divider rule (VDR)
3.1.3 Circuit ground
3.2 Parallel resistive circuits and the current-divider rule
3.2.1 Parallel resistive circuits
3.2.1.1 Parallel voltage
3.2.1.2 Parallel current
3.2.1.3 Equivalent parallel resistance
3.2.1.4 Total parallel power
3.2.2 Current-divider rule (CDR)
3.3 Series–parallel resistive circuits
3.3.1 Equivalent resistance
3.3.2 Method for analysing series–parallel circuits
3.4.1 Wye and delta configurations
3.4.2 Delta to wye conversion (D!Y)
3.4.3 Wye to delta conversion (Y!D)
3.4.3.1 RY and RD
3.4.4 Using D ! Y conversion to simplify bridge circuits
3.4.5 Balanced bridge
3.4.6 Measure unknown resistors using the balanced bridge
Experiment 3: Series–parallel resistive circuits
Methods of DC circuit analysis
4.1 Voltage source, current source and their equivalent conversions
4.1.1 Source equivalent conversion
4.1.2 Sources in series and parallel
4.1.2.1 Voltage sources in series
4.1.2.2 Voltage sources in parallel
4.1.2.3 Current sources in parallel
4.1.2.4 Current sources in series
4.2 Branch current analysis
4.2.1 Procedure for applying the branch circuit analysis
4.3 Mesh current analysis
Mesh current analysis
4.3.1 Procedure for applying mesh current analysis
4.4 Nodal voltage analysis
4.4.1 Procedure for applying the node voltage analysis
Experiment 4: Mesh current analysis and nodal voltage analysis
The network theorems
5.1 Superposition theorem
5.1.1 Introduction
Superposition theorem
5.1.2 Steps to apply the superposition theorem
5.2 Thevenin’s and Norton’s theorems
5.2.1 Introduction
5.2.2 Steps to apply Thevenin’s and Norton’s theorems
5.2.3 Viewpoints of the theorems
5.3 Maximum power transfer
5.4 Millman’s and substitution theorems
5.4.1 Millman’s theorem
5.4.2 Substitution theorem
Experiment 5A: Superposition theorem
Capacitors and inductors
6.1 Capacitor
6.1.1 The construction of a capacitor
6.1.2 Charging a capacitor
6.1.3 Energy storage element
6.1.4 Discharging a capacitor
6.1.5 Capacitance
6.1.6 Factors affecting capacitance
Factors affecting capacitance
6.1.7 Leakage current
6.1.8 Breakdown voltage
6.1.10 Energy stored by a capacitor
Energy stored by a capacitor
6.2 Capacitors in series and parallel
6.2.1 Capacitors in series
6.2.2 Capacitors in parallel
6.2.3 Capacitors in series–parallel
6.3 Inductor
6.3.1 Electromagnetism induction
6.3.1.1 Electromagnetic field
6.3.1.3 Lenz’s law
6.3.2 Inductor
6.3.3 Self-inductance
6.3.4 Relationship between inductor voltage and current
6.3.5 Factors affecting inductance
Factors affecting inductance
6.3.6 The energy stored by an inductor
6.3.7 Winding resistor of an inductor
6.4 Inductors in series and parallel
6.4.1 Inductors in series
6.4.2 Inductors in parallel
6.4.3 Inductors in series–parallel
Experiment 6: Capacitors
Transient analysis of circuits
7.1 Transient response
7.1.1 The first-order circuit and its transient response
7.1.2 Circuit responses
7.1.3 The initial condition of the dynamic circuit
7.2 The step response of an RC circuit
7.2.1 The charging process of an RC circuit
7.3 The source-free response of the RC circuit
7.3.1 The discharging process of the RC circuit
7.3.2 Quantity analysis of the RC discharging process
7.3.3 RC time constant t
7.3.4 The RC time constant and charging/discharging
7.4 The step response of an RL circuit
7.4.1 Energy storing process of the RL circuit
7.5 Source-free response of an RL circuit
7.5.1 Energy releasing process of an RL circuit
7.5.3 RL time constant t
7.5.4 The RL time constant and the energy storing and releasing
Experiment 7: The first-order circuit (RC circuit)
Fundamentals of AC circuits
8.1 Introduction to alternating current (AC)
8.1.1 The difference between DC and AC
8.1.2 DC and AC waveforms
8.1.3 Period and frequency
8.2.3 Average value
8.2.4 Root mean square (RMS) value
8.3 Phasors
8.3.1 Introduction to phasor notation
8.3.2 Complex numbers review
8.3.3 Phasor
8.3.4 Phasor diagram
8.3.5 Rotating factor
8.3.6 Differentiation and integration of the phasor
8.4 Resistors, inductors and capacitors in sinusoidal AC circuits
8.4.1 Resistor’s AC response
8.4.2 Inductor’s AC response
8.4.3 Capacitor’s AC response
Methods of AC circuit analysis
9.1.1 Impedance
9.1.3 Characteristics of the impedance
9.2 Impedance in series and parallel
9.2.1 Impedance of series and parallel circuits
9.2.2 Voltage divider and current divider rules
9.2.3 The phasor forms of KVL and KCL
9.3. Power in AC circuits
9.3.1 Instantaneous power p
9.3.2 Active power P (or average power)
9.3.3 Reactive power Q
9.3.4 Apparent power S
9.3.5 Power triangle
9.3.6 Power factor (PF)
9.3.7 Total power
9.4 Methods of analysing AC circuits
9.4.1 Mesh current analysis
9.4.2 Node voltage analysis
9.4.3 Superposition theorem
9.4.4 Thevenin’s and Norton’s theorems
Experiment 9: Sinusoidal AC circuits
RLC circuits and resonance
10.1 Series resonance
10.1.1 Introduction
10.1.2 Frequency of series resonance
Frequency of series resonance
10.1.3 Impedance of series resonance
10.1.4 Current of series resonance
10.1.5 Phasor diagram of series resonance
10.1.6 Response curves of XL, XC and Z versus f
10.1.7 Phase response of series resonance
10.1.8 Quality factor
10.1.9 Voltage of series resonant
10.2 Bandwidth and selectivity
10.2.1 The bandwidth of series resonance
10.2.2 The selectivity of series resonance
10.2.3 The quality factor and selectivity
10.2.3.1 Series resonance summary
10.3 Parallel resonance
10.3.1 Introduction
10.3.2 Frequency of parallel resonance
Frequency of parallel resonance
10.3.4 Current of parallel resonance
10.3.5 Phasor diagram of parallel resonance
10.3.6 Quality factor
10.3.7 Current of parallel resonance
10.3.8 Bandwidth of parallel resonance
10.3.8.1 Parallel resonance summary
10.4 The practical parallel resonant circuit
10.4.2 Resonant frequency
10.4.3 Applications of the resonance
Experiment 10: Series resonant circuit
Mutual inductance and transformers
11.1 Mutual inductance
11.1.1 Mutual inductance and coefficient of coupling
11.1.2 Dot convention
11.2 Basic transformer
11.2.1 Transformer
11.2.2 Air-core transformer
11.2.3 Iron-core transformer
11.2.4 Ideal transformer
11.3 Step-up and step-down transformers
11.3.1 Step-up transformer
11.3.2 Step-down transformer
11.3.3 Applications of step-up and step-down transformers
11.3.4 Other types of transformers
11.4 Impedance matching
11.4.1 Maximum power transfer
11.4.2 Impedance matching
Experiment 11: Transformer
Circuits with dependent sources
12.1.1 Dependent (or controlled) sources
12.1.2 Equivalent conversion of dependent sources
12.2 Analysing circuits with dependent sources
Bibliography
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Understandable Electric Circuits

# Understandable Electric Circuits

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04/17/2013

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