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1.1 Real Numbers in Theory and Practice
1.1.1 Fixed-Point Representation of Real Numbers
1.1.2 Floating-Point Representation
1.1.4 Finite-Precision Representations of Real Numbers
1.1.5 The IEEE Standard for Floating-Point Arithmetic
1.2 Round-oﬀ Errors
1.2.1 Error Deﬁnitions
1.2.2 Round-Oﬀ
1.2.3 Round-Oﬀ Errors in Finite-Precision Computation
1.3 Review of Complex Numbers
1.3.1 Complex Numbers as Two-Dimensional Vectors
1.3.2 The Imaginary Unit
1.3.3 Complex Multiplication and its Interpretation
1.3.4 The Complex Exponential
1.3.5 Inverses and Division
1.4 Sinusoids in Continuous Time
1.4.1 The Basic Cosine and Sine Functions
1.4.2 The General Real-Valued Sinusoid
1.4.3 Complex-Valued Sinusoids and Phasors
1.5 Sinusoids in Discrete Time
1.5.1 Discrete-Time Signals
1.5.2 Deﬁnition of the Discrete-Time Sinusoid
1.5.3 Equivalent Frequencies for Discrete-Time Sinusoids
1.5.4 Periodicity of Discrete-Time Sinusoids
1.6 Sampling of Continuous-Time Sinusoids
1.6.1 Sampling
1.6.2 Discrete-Time Sinusoids Obtained by Sampling
1.6.3 The Concept of Alias
1.6.4 The Nyquist Rate
Matrices and Systems
2.1 Introduction to Matrix Algebra
2.1.1 Matrices and Vectors
2.1.2 Signals as Vectors
2.1.3 Linear Transformations
2.2 Matrix Multiplication
2.2.1 The Matrix of a Linear Transformation
2.2.2 The Matrix-Vector Product
2.2.3 The Matrix-Matrix Product
2.2.4 Associativity and Commutativity
2.3 More on Matrix Algebra
2.3.1 Column Selection and Permutation
2.3.2 Matrix Transpose
2.3.3 Row Selection
2.4 Matrix Inversion and Linear Independence
2.4.1 Inverse Systems and Signal Representations
2.4.2 Range of a Matrix
2.4.3 Geometrical Interpretation of the Range
2.5 Inverse of a Square Matrix
2.5.1 Nonsingular Matrices
2.5.2 Inverse of a Nonsingular Matrix
2.5.3 Inverses in Matrix Algebra
2.5.4 Nonsingularity of Triangular Matrices
2.5.5 The Inversion Problem for Matrices of Arbitrary Size
2.6.3 Gaussian Elimination Illustrated
2.6.4 Row Operations in Forward Elimination
2.7 Factorization of Matrices in Gaussian Elimi-
2.7.1 LU Factorization
2.7.2 The Matrix L
2.7.3 Applications of the LU Factorization
2.7.4 Row Operations in Backward Substitution
2.8 Pivoting in Gaussian Elimination
2.8.1 Pivots and Pivot Rows
2.8.2 Zero Pivots
2.8.3 Small Pivots
2.8.4 Row Pivoting
2.9 Further Topics in Gaussian Elimination
2.9.1 Computation of the Matrix Inverse
2.9.2 Ill-Conditioned Problems
2.10 Inner Products, Projections and Signal Ap-
2.10.1 Inner Products and Norms
2.10.2 Angles, Projections and Orthogonality
2.10.3 Formulation of the Signal Approximation Problem
2.10.4 Projection and the Signal Approximation Problem
2.10.5 Solution of the Signal Approximation Problem
2.11 Least-Squares Approximation in Practice
2.12 Orthogonality and Least-Squares Approxima-
2.12.1 A Simpler Least-Squares Problem
2.12.2 Generating Orthogonal Reference Vectors
2.13 Complex-Valued Matrices and Vectors
2.13.1 Similarities to the Real-Valued Case
2.13.2 Inner Products of Complex-Valued Vectors
2.13.3 The Least-Squares Problem in the Complex Case
3.1 Complex Sinusoids as Reference Vectors
3.1.1 Introduction
3.1.2 Fourier Sinusoids
3.1.3 Orthogonality of Fourier Sinusoids
3.2 The Discrete Fourier Transform and its In-
3.2.1 Deﬁnitions
3.2.2 Symmetry Properties of the DFT and IDFT Matrices
3.2.3 Signal Structure and the Discrete Fourier Transform
3.3 Structural Properties of the DFT: Part I
3.3.1 The Spectrum of a Real-Valued Signal
3.3.2 Signal Permutations
3.4 Structural Properties of the DFT: Part II
3.4.1 Permutations of DFT and IDFT Matrices
3.4.2 Summary of Identities
3.4.3 Main Structural Properties of the DFT
3.5 Structural Properties of the DFT: Examples
3.5.1 Miscellaneous Signal Transformations
3.5.2 Exploring Symmetries
3.6 Multiplication and Circular Convolution
3.6.1 Duality of Multiplication and Circular Convolution
3.6.2 Computation of Circular Convolution
3.7 Periodic and Zero-Padded Extensions of a Sig-
3.7.1 Deﬁnitions
3.7.2 Periodic Extension to an Integer Number of Periods
3.7.3 Zero-Padding to a Multiple of the Signal Length
3.8 Detection of Sinusoids Using the Discrete Fourier
3.8.1 Introduction
3.8.2 The DFT of a Complex Sinusoid
3.8.3 Detection of a Real-Valued Sinusoid
3.8.4 Final Remarks
4.1 The Discrete-Time Fourier Transform
4.1.1 From Vectors to Sequences
4.1.2 Development of the Discrete-Time Fourier Transform
4.2.2 The DFT as a Sampled DTFT
4.2.3 Signals of Inﬁnite Duration
4.3 Introduction to Linear Filters
4.3.1 Linearity, Time-Invariance and Causality
4.3.2 Sinusoidal Inputs and Frequency Response
4.3.3 Amplitude and Phase Response
4.4 Linear Filtering in the Frequency Domain
4.4.3 The General Finite Impulse Response Filter
4.4.5 Response to a Periodic Input
4.5 Frequency-Selective Filters
4.5.1 Main Filter Types
4.5.2 Ideal Filters
4.5.3 Amplitude Response of Practical Filters
4.5.4 Practical FIR Filters
4.5.5 Filter Transformations
4.6 Time Domain Computation of Filter Response
4.6.1 Impulse Response
4.6.2 Convolution and Linearity
4.6.3 Computation of the Convolution Sum
4.6.4 Convolution and Polynomial Multiplication
4.6.5 Impulse Response of Cascaded Filters
4.7 Convolution in Practice
4.7.1 Linear Convolution of Two Vectors
4.7.2 Linear Convolution versus Circular Convolution
4.7.3 Circular Buﬀers for Real-Time FIR Filters
4.7.4 Block Convolution
Epilogue
The Fourier Series
The Fourier Transform
Nyquist Sampling
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