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Essay Form1

Essay Form1

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Published by Joseph Holbrook
This just shows the proper formatting for essays for EUH2011.
This just shows the proper formatting for essays for EUH2011.

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Published by: Joseph Holbrook on Sep 01, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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"What is central to the governing systems of both the Greeks and Romans? More specifically,what are the 2-3 most critical elements of any political order as Polybius would seem tounderstand it."TITLE22
“Polybius’s views of essential elements of Roman Constitutionalism.”Word count:606
The purpose of the research project is to examine archival sources on the historyof the Juventude Católica Estudantil (JEC-Young Catholic Students) organization fromthe mid- to late-1950s through the mid-1960s, which will contribute significantly to thecompletion of my doctoral dissertation. If funded, I will be concentrating my research inSão Paulo, in the Centro de Documentação e Informaçã Científica (CIDIC), located at thePontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo (Catholic University of São Paulo).
Significance of Study
The history of Catholic student movements in the mid-twentieth century has takena back seat to economic and cultural history such as studies of labor movements and theradicalization of peasant groups. This research examines the role of religion andestablishes the importance of religion within the context of studies of popular socialmovements in Latin America, and the importance of mobilizing students and other youthto a particular social and political cause. My study will complement the work of AnaMaria Bidegain, José Oscar Beozzo and Alberto Gómez de Souza, among others. These previous studies will serve as a foundation for my research. This study proposes thatalthough the Catholic Church hierarchy in Brazil intended to utilize the mobilization of Catholic students through organizations such as JEC to defend Catholic interests and to preserve Catholic institutional influence, the unintended consequence of the work of JECwas to empower and to radicalize young Catholic students, both men and women, in aneffort to address social injustice and poverty in Brazil. The study further hypothesizesthat although JEC came to an end in 1966, its ideological development and theradicalization of its former members had a significant influence on the development of 2
Liberation Theology, which arose in the early 1970s as Third-World Catholic theologians began to utilize the social sciences, and occasionally Marxist theory, in conjunction witha fresh reading of the scriptures in order to analyze and address poverty and inequality inLatin America.
 Research goals and methodologies
The study's specific objective is to study primary sources such as letters,newsletters, conference programs and bulletins in order to examine the ideologicalorientations and content of the Young Catholic Students and to evaluate ideologicalchange over time. Interviews with
historians and activists in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro whoare familiar with JEC or who were members of JEC in the 1950s or 1960s, will cast fresh light onthe activities of JEC from a social and cultural perspective. Although political and intellectualhistories of the Catholic Student movements in Brazil have been produced, to date, there has beenno social or cultural history of JEC published in Brazil. For example, José Oscar Beozzo is anoted Brazilian author and Catholic priest who has written on the history of JEC. Alberto Gómezde Souza was the national director for JEC in Brazil from 1957 to 1958, and JEC regionaldirector for Latin America in 1959. By interviewing these men and women, I will profit fromtheir experience and advice as I move through the wealth of documentary resources in Brazil.
One such resource is a library of cassette tapes containing interviews withseventeen former JEC activists, carried out in 1988 in the Centro de Documentação eInformaçã Científica (CIDIC)
, located at the Pontifícia Universidade Católica de SãoPaulo (Catholic University of São Paulo). In addition, CEDIC has an extensive library of  primary source materials for JEC and other lay-movements of Catholic Action such asthe Young Catholic Workers (JOC).

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