×
Language:

1(a)Number of protons & number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom (
1)
1m(b)
178
( 1 )
O
( 1 )
1m(c)ParticleProtonNeutronElectronMass /g1.6725 × 10
–24
1.6748 × 10
–24
0.0009 × 10
–24
Relative charge
+10-1
(i)as shown in the table(ii)1.6725 × 10
–24
+0.0009 × 10
–24
=
1.6734 × 10
–24
g
(iii)1.6734 × 10
–24
x6.0225 × 10
23
=
1.0078 g
(iv) Other isotopes present1m1m1m1m(d)(ii) increases
Explanation for Al
:
(1)
e –removed from (3) p
or
e –or orbital is higher in energy level
or
better shielded than (3)s
or
p electron is shielded by 3s electrons
Allow e –is further awayMark independentlyOr
1m1m1m
First ionisationenergy/kJ mol
–1
16001400120010008006004002000 NaMgAl SiP SCl A
×
Al below Mg
(1)
(1)
(1)
×
S below P and Clbut above Si

Explanation for S
:e –removed from (3)p electron pair
or
repulsion between paired e –(reduces energy required)
Mark separatelyIf used ‘d’ rather than ‘p’ orbital – only get (explanation marks)
1m(10m)
2(a)
Rate =
[PH2O2
–
]
n
[OH
–
]
m
By substituting the values of rate, [PH2O2
–
] and [OH
–
] from the results of experiments 1and 2:
3 = 3
n
n
= 1
The reaction is
first order
with respect to phosphinate ion.1m1m
(b)
(a)
Rate =
[PH2O2
–
]
n
[OH
–
]
m
By substituting the values of rate, [PH2O2
–
] and [OH
–
] from the results of experiments 3and 4:4 = 2
m
m
= 2The reaction is
second order
with respect to hydroxide ion.1m1m
(c)The overall order of reaction is third order.
1m
(d)The rate equation is rate =
[PH2O2
–
] [OH
–
]
2
1m
(e)
By substituting the values of rate, [PH2O2
–
] and [OH
–
] from the results of experiment 1 in the rate equation1m1m
(f)
By substituting the values of
, [PH2O2
–
] and [OH
–
] into the rate equation:Rate = 4 x 0.6 x (3.0)
2
= 21.6 dm
3
min
–1
1m1m

(10m)3The chlorides of Group 14 are CCl
4
, SiCl
4
, GeCl
4
, SnCl
4
, PbCl
4
,(a)(i)State the type of hybridization present in the above tetrachloride
sp
3
1m(ii)Name the shape of each molecule.T
etrahedral
1m(b)(i)The tetrachloride from the above that is totally not hydrolysed in water is
CCl
4

,
Water molecules cannot form dative bonds with CCl
4
Because carbon atom does not have 2d orbitals
.1m1m(ii)
PbCl
4
,has the highest boiling point.
It has the strongest dispersion forces (temporary induced dipole) becauseit is the largest molecule.
1m1m(c)Why is carbón tetrachloride used in extinguishers?
Chemically inert (not reactive/passive) / Its denser vapour sinks excludes oxygen and puts the fire off
1m(d)(i)Name one of the compounds :
1m(ii)Why is this compound that you choose thermally unstable?
The Pb-Cl bond length is the longest and the weakest
1m(iii)Write an equation for the decomposition.PbCl
4
(s)→ PbCl
2
(s) + Cl
2
(g)1m(10m)4(a)(i) secondary alcohol1m(ii)H
3
C CH
3
CHOCOCH
3
+ HCl (
1 mark
) CH
3
(
1 mark
)2 m
Search History:
Searching...
Result 00 of 00
00 results for result for
• p.
• Notes