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2008 Tangjitsitcharoen Psd Monitor

2008 Tangjitsitcharoen Psd Monitor

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ARTICLE IN PRESS
 Journal of Manufacturing Processes ( )
Contents lists available atScienceDirect
 Journal of Manufacturing Processes
 journal homepage:www.elsevier.com/locate/manpro
Technical note
Intelligent monitoring and identification of cutting states of chips and chatter onCNC turning machine
b
a
Department of Industrial Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Phayathai Road, Patumwan, Bangkok, 10330, Thailand
b
Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Setsunan University, 17-8 Ikedanaka-machi, Neyagawa, Osaka, 572-8508, Japan
a r t i c l e i n f o
 Article history:
Received 20 February 2006Received in revised form18 July 2007Accepted 24 January 2008Available online xxxx
a b s t r a c t
To realize an intelligent machine tool, which can autonomously determine the cutting states and canchange them automatically as required due to changes in the environmental conditions, a methodhas been developed to monitor and identify the states of cutting for CNC turning based on a patternrecognition technique. The method proposed introduces three parameters to classify the cutting statesof continuous chip formation, broken chip formation, and chatter. Among the states of cutting, thebroken chip formation is required for the stable and reliable machining process. The three parametersare calculated and obtained by taking the ratio of the average variances of the dynamic components of three cutting forces. The algorithm was developed to calculate the values of three parameters during theprocesstoobtainthereferencefeaturespacesanddeterminetheproperthresholdvaluesforclassificationof the cutting states. A tool dynamometer is developed, and implemented to the CNC turning machine tomonitor the turning process.It is proved by a series of cutting experiments that the states of cutting are well identified by themethoddevelopedandproposedregardlessofthecuttingconditions.Thealgorithmisproposedtoobtainthe broken chips by changing the cutting conditions during the process.
©
2008 The Society of Manufacturing Engineers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction
As fully automated and intelligent machine tools are highlydeveloped and expected to be realized in the near future, whichcan autonomously determine the cutting states regardless of anycuttingconditionsandcanchangethemautomaticallyasrequired,it is hence necessary to develop a methodology to identify thestates of cutting automatically. In the turning process, continuouschipsareoftenproducedwhileturningmaterialsofthesteelfamilyand aluminum alloys that are most popularly used for mechanicalparts. Chips are apt to entangle the workpiece or cutting tool,which causes deterioration of the finished surface and sometimesbreakage of cutting tools as well as injuring the machine operator.It is therefore desired to make chips break into small piecesto realize safe and reliable machining by changing the cuttingconditionsduringthein-processcutting[1–5].Chatterisoneofthe majorlimitationsofproductivity inmetalcutting.Italwaysaffectssurface finish, dimensional accuracy, tool life, and machine life. Itis then necessary to avoid the chatter occurred during the cuttingprocess.
Corresponding author. Tel.: +66 2 218 6815; fax: +66 2 251 3969.
E-mail addresses:
Somkiat.T@eng.chula.ac.th(S. Tangjitsitcharoen),moriwaki@ise.setsunan.ac.jp(T. Moriwaki).
Normally, continuous chips become broken at lower cuttingspeeds. The chip-breaking condition is improved as the feedrate and the depth of cut are increased. The cutting stability isgreatly increased at low cutting speeds because of the processdamping force effect due to an increase in the slope of thesurface undulations[6–10]. As the tool wear progresses on the tool flank, the stability limit increases due to the process dampingeffect[7,8,11]. However, the increase in nose wear causes larger contact length between the cutting tool and the workpiece,and consequently chatter occurs. Chatter is best minimized bydesigning machine tool, fixture, and tooling structures that havehigh dynamic stiffness, especially in the direction of major cuttingforces [12]. Extensive research efforts have been devoted so far to developsensors and methodologies for detection of chatter [13–16]and identification of chip forms[17,18]. It is already known that sensing cutting force signals from the cutting process is one of the most promising methods, and research has been carried outfrom various points of views [19–22]. The analysis of various cutting force signals, monitoring techniques, and processingmethods has been presented in a recent paper [23] to identifythe chip forms, especially the favorable and unfavorable chiptypes referring to ISO standard 3685 in 1977 and 1993[24,25]. It is known that the generation of chatter affects mostly themain force component[20,22], while the feed force component
1526-6125/$ – see front matter
©
2008 The Society of Manufacturing Engineers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/j.manpro.2008.01.001Pleasecitethisarticleinpressas: TangjitsitcharoenS,MoriwakiT.IntelligentmonitoringandidentificationofcuttingstatesofchipsandchatteronCNCturningmachine. Journal of Manufacturing Processes (2008), doi:10.1016/j.manpro.2008.01.001
 
ARTICLE IN PRESS
2
S. Tangjitsitcharoen, T. Moriwaki / Journal of Manufacturing Processes ( )
Fig. 1.
Illustration of experimentally obtained average variances of dynamic components of three cutting forces
(
 X 
,
,
 Z 
)
and parameters
1
,
2
, and
3
at cutting speed of 150 m/min, feed rate 0.05 mm/rev, depth of cut 1.5 mm.
is most sensitive to chip breaking [21]. The artificial neural networks and clustering techniques have been employed by manyresearchers[16,18]. However, the preliminary experiments for specific cases or different cutting conditions are always requiredto set up the database and train the system. A simplified methodfor recognizing the cutting states has been proposed by utilizingthe dynamic components of cutting forces [22]. The comparisonof the results between the method proposed and the FFT methodisalmostthesamesuccessrate,butthemethodproposedrequiresmuchlessdata-processingtime.Asaconsequence,theundesirablecuttingstatescanbeeffectivelyavoidedwithintheveryshorttimeor real time. Hence, the dynamic components of cutting forceswereadoptedtomonitorandidentifythechipformsandchatterinthisresearchtoincreasethereliabilityofautomatedandintelligentmanufacturing.The aim of this research is to develop an in-process monitoringsystem for identification of the states of continuous chip, brokenchip, and chatter, regardless of the cutting conditions by usinga proposed pattern recognition technique. The broken chipsidentifiedherearethefavorablearcchipsreferringtoISOstandard3685. The continuous chips are the unfavorable long and snarledchips. The method proposed introduces three parameters, which
Pleasecitethisarticleinpressas: TangjitsitcharoenS,MoriwakiT.IntelligentmonitoringandidentificationofcuttingstatesofchipsandchatteronCNCturningmachine. Journal of Manufacturing Processes (2008), doi:10.1016/j.manpro.2008.01.001
 
ARTICLE IN PRESS
S. Tangjitsitcharoen, T. Moriwaki / Journal of Manufacturing Processes ( )
3
are calculated and obtained by taking the ratio of the averagevariances of the dynamic cutting forces, to classify the states of cutting. The pattern recognition method developed will be usedin the future work for optimization of cutting conditions in CNCturning.
2. In-process monitoring and identification of cutting states
2.1. Dynamic cutting forces of cutting states
The dynamic cutting force has its own characteristic patternin each cutting state of continuous chip formation, broken chipformation, and the generation of chatter. As the chips are brokenduring cutting, the dynamic cutting forces vary either due to chipshitting the cutting tool or the workpiece. The dynamic componentof the feed force, among the three force components, is relativelylarge in amplitude when the chips are broken into pieces [1]. On the other hand, the dynamic cutting forces are small in amplitudewhen the chips are continuous.However, the generation of chatter affects mostly the maincutting forces when the chatter appears[20]. It is then expected thatthedynamiccomponentofthemainforceisrelativelylargeinamplitude,amongthethreeforcecomponents.And,theamplitudeof dynamic main force of the chatter is also expected to be largerthan the ones of continuous and broken chip formation.The above paragraphs suggest that the continuous chipformation, broken chip formation, and chatter can be classifiedby monitoring the dynamic components of three cutting forces(whicharemainforce,
m
,feedforce,
 f 
,thrustforce,
).Ingeneral,when using the dynamic cutting force as a tool to identify thecutting states, it is then necessary to eliminate noise signals fromother sources by using a low-pass filter in the experiments.
2.2. Pattern recognition of cutting states
The pattern recognition technique is proposed to classify thecuttingstatesofcontinuouschipformation,brokenchipformation,and chatter during in-process cutting by utilizing the averagevariances of the dynamic cutting forces
(
 X 
,
,
 Z 
)
, as showninFig. 1.Fig. 1illustrates the example of dynamic components of three cutting forces and the definition of the average variancesof the dynamic cutting forces, which are calculated based on thedynamic components of three cutting forces measured. However,the average variances of the dynamic cutting forces
(
 X 
,
,
 Z 
)
arenot generalized yet to identify the cutting states regardless of the cutting conditions. Therefore, the average variances of thedynamic cutting forces are normalized by taking the ratio of thecorresponding time records of three average variances of thedynamic cutting forces,
 X 
,
 Z 
,
 Z 
.Hence, the method introduces three parameters,
1
=
,
2
=
 Z 
,
3
=
 Z 
, to represent the ratio of the average variance of thedynamiccomponentsofthreecuttingforces,asshowninFig.1.The parameters
1
,
2
, and
3
are the ratio of the average varianceof the main force to feed force, the ratio of the average varianceof the main force to thrust force, and the average variance of thefeedforcetothrustforce,respectively.Theparameters
1
and
3
aresupposed to be significant when the broken chips are formed dueto the relatively large in amplitude of dynamic feed force. In caseof chatter, the parameters
1
and
2
are expected to be significantbecause the dynamic main force is mostly affected.The dynamic components of cutting forces are relatively smallin amplitude when the continuous chips are formed. However, itis possible to classify the state of the continuous chip because thedynamic cutting forces of continuous chip formation are relatively
Fig. 2.
Flow chart of the algorithm to calculate parameters
1
,
2
, and
3
.
small in amplitude as compared to those of broken chip formationand chatter. Thus, all parameters
1
,
2
, and
3
become significant.To obtain the reference feature spaces and determine theproper threshold values for classification of the cutting states, thefollowing algorithm is developed here to calculate the values of parameters
1
,
2
, and
3
.(1) Calculate the dynamic cutting forces
(
m
,
 f 
,
)
during in-process cutting.(2) Search for the dynamic cutting forces, which are the plusvalues from 0 to 1 s, and calculate the average plus value lines
(
a
 X 
1
,
a
1
,
a
 Z 
1
)
.(3) Search for the dynamic cutting forces which are the minusvaluefrom0to1s,andcalculatetheaverageminusvaluelines
(
a
 X 
2
,
a
2
,
a
 Z 
2
)
.(4) Calculate the average variance of the dynamic cutting forces
(
 X 
=
a
 X 
1
a
 X 
2
;
=
a
1
a
2
;
 Z 
=
a
 Z 
1
a
 Z 
2
)
, and then takethe ratio of the average variance of the dynamic component of three cutting forces,
1
=
,
2
=
 Z 
, and
3
=
 Z 
.(5) Determine the proper threshold values
1
,
2
, and
3
in thereferencefeaturespaceforclassificationofthecontinuouschipformation, broken chip formation, and chatter.The flow chart of the above algorithm is shown inFig. 2.
Pleasecitethisarticleinpressas: TangjitsitcharoenS,MoriwakiT.IntelligentmonitoringandidentificationofcuttingstatesofchipsandchatteronCNCturningmachine. Journal of Manufacturing Processes (2008), doi:10.1016/j.manpro.2008.01.001

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