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Optimal Power Flow Problem Solution-Ahmed Abdulqader

Optimal Power Flow Problem Solution-Ahmed Abdulqader

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Published by Ahmed AbdulSalam
this is my own work on providing an insight to the optimal power flow problem and presented solution approaches ....
this is my own work on providing an insight to the optimal power flow problem and presented solution approaches ....

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Published by: Ahmed AbdulSalam on Sep 01, 2011
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12/13/2012

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Original manuscript by : AHMED ABDULSALAM , ©2010,ALL RIGHTS RESERVED (a1works00@gmail.com)
 
OPTIMAL POWER FLOW PROBLEM
The objective of an Optimal Power Flow (OPF) algorithm is to find steady stateoperation point which minimizes generation cost, loss etc. or maximizes socialwelfare, loadability etc. while maintaining an acceptable system performance in
terms of limits on generators’ real and reactive powers, line flow limits, output of 
various compensating devices etc. Traditionally, classical optimization methodswere used to effectively solve OPF. But more recently due to incorporation of FACTS devices and deregulation of a power sector, the traditional concepts andpractices of power systems are superimposed by an economic marketmanagement. So OPF have become complex. In recent years, ArtificialIntelligence (AI) methods have been emerged which can solve highly complexOPF problems
 
There are various optimization methods used to solve OPF problems ,and themain used solving methods are:
(1) Linear Programming (LP) method(2) Newton-Raphson (NR) method(3) Quadratic Programming (QP) method(4) Nonlinear Programming (NLP) method(5) Interior Point (IP) method(6) Artificial Intelligence (AI) methods.
The computation of active and reactive Optimal Power Flow (OPF) has receivedwidespread attention in the last decade . It is of current interest to many utilitiesand has been identified as one of the most important operational needs. Real-time application in particular requires the computer codes to be fast and robust,high accuracy having less importance. In this type of problems the choice of method lies between two main approaches: nonlinear and linear programmingtechniques.Nonlinear programming techniques have been used for accurate active andreactive OPF models. These methods had several drawbacks in the earlierapplications, including slow convergence, complexity, and difficulties involved inhandling constraints and in adapting to different problems.The linear programming (LP) method has been reported to be reliable and fast insolving linearized OPF models . It is very convenient for handling the constraints.But on the other hand, it produces solutions that are at the corners of thelinearized feasible region while the nonlinear objective could lie anywhere within
 
Original manuscript by : AHMED ABDULSALAM , ©2010,ALL RIGHTS RESERVED (a1works00@gmail.com)
 
the feasible region. An important drawback is that LP allows only for a linearobjective function. Oscillatory behaviormay also occur if the LP is iterated without good linearization of the constraints.The work reported here focuses on the active problem even though it can beapplied equally to the reactive power problem. It is based on the combination of the two methods, to take advantage of the strong points in one to compensatefor the shortcomings of the other. One previous thesis was based on such an ideaand it used the LP technique to help the Generalized Reduced Gradient techniquein a feasibility adjustment step. In the work presented here, Zoutendijk's feasibledirections method for solving nonlinear programming problems hasbeen used. In this method an incremental model using the gradient at an existingsolution is employed. A small linear domain around this solution is
 
chosen toensure good linearization. The original constraints that bind in this small regionare included in the incremental model.Several modifications have been made to avoid the general problems in existingoptimization techniques, mentioned earlier. First, to exploit the speed of the LPtechnique, the first solution is produced using a linear model in which a piecewiselinear approximation of the costcurve and linearization of the nonlinear constraints is employed. This will result ina near optimum solution that can be used to start the nonlinear programmingtechnique. Second, a branch oriented formulation of OPF is used as opposed to anodal one to provide an accurate linearization of the problem. At least one paperhas addressed this problem and has given a good linearization model. Third, theembedded network structure of the constraints are exploited to speed up thesolution technique. Fourth, the method of parallel tangents is used tospeed up the convergence of the nonlinear technique. The procedure developedin this work is capable of starting from an
 
infeasible initial solution.
PROBLEM FORMULATION
 
The Optimal Power Flow (OPF), as formulated in this work, has the followingstructure:Minimize :
 
Original manuscript by : AHMED ABDULSALAM , ©2010,ALL RIGHTS RESERVED (a1works00@gmail.com)
 
Subject to :The variable vector
 x 
consists of real and imaginary parts of voltages and currentson all network branches, longitudinal and transversal, plus the active generatedpowers (these active powers are further divided into components in the case of piecewise linear approximation of the thermal production costs).The branch oriented formulation of OPF when compared with the conventionalnodal formulation has several important advantages, even though the size of theproblem grows due to the introduction of more variables. First, therepresentation of the system equations is simplified and the model becomes verysparse and has an embedded network structure.Second, the technique becomes very efficient for constrained OPF problemswhere new constraints bind during the optimization. These constraints can beadded in a simple manner with minimal effort and computational timerequirement. Third, the special structure of this formulation makes it possible toapply special fast algorithms to solve the problem. These points are considered inthe following sections.
The Objective Function
The objective in the active Optimal Power Flow Problem is to minimize theproduction cost of the thermal system. The production cost curve for a thermalplant is nonlinear and is normally approximated as a quadratic curve. In thiswork, the objective is considered differently in two stages. In the first stage apiecewise linear approximation of the thermal cost curves is used. Thisapproximation connects the minimum and maximum production levels throughthe most efficient operating points corresponding to different number of generators in operation, a
s
shown in figure 1.

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