Original manuscript by : AHMED ABDULSALAM , ©2010,ALL RIGHTS RESERVED (firstname.lastname@example.org)
OPTIMAL POWER FLOW PROBLEM
The objective of an Optimal Power Flow (OPF) algorithm is to find steady stateoperation point which minimizes generation cost, loss etc. or maximizes socialwelfare, loadability etc. while maintaining an acceptable system performance in
terms of limits on generators’ real and reactive powers, line flow limits, output of
various compensating devices etc. Traditionally, classical optimization methodswere used to effectively solve OPF. But more recently due to incorporation of FACTS devices and deregulation of a power sector, the traditional concepts andpractices of power systems are superimposed by an economic marketmanagement. So OPF have become complex. In recent years, ArtificialIntelligence (AI) methods have been emerged which can solve highly complexOPF problems
There are various optimization methods used to solve OPF problems ,and themain used solving methods are:
(1) Linear Programming (LP) method(2) Newton-Raphson (NR) method(3) Quadratic Programming (QP) method(4) Nonlinear Programming (NLP) method(5) Interior Point (IP) method(6) Artificial Intelligence (AI) methods.
The computation of active and reactive Optimal Power Flow (OPF) has receivedwidespread attention in the last decade . It is of current interest to many utilitiesand has been identified as one of the most important operational needs. Real-time application in particular requires the computer codes to be fast and robust,high accuracy having less importance. In this type of problems the choice of method lies between two main approaches: nonlinear and linear programmingtechniques.Nonlinear programming techniques have been used for accurate active andreactive OPF models. These methods had several drawbacks in the earlierapplications, including slow convergence, complexity, and difficulties involved inhandling constraints and in adapting to different problems.The linear programming (LP) method has been reported to be reliable and fast insolving linearized OPF models . It is very convenient for handling the constraints.But on the other hand, it produces solutions that are at the corners of thelinearized feasible region while the nonlinear objective could lie anywhere within