S T A T E O F M E T R O P O L I T A N A M E R I C A |
R A C E & E T H N I C I T Y
The 2010 census shows strikingly that the
rst decade of the 21
century was pivotal for racial and ethnicchange in the United States, indicating a clear break from the past.
The aging white population grewby only 1.2 percent over the 10-year period, giving way to the younger “new minority” growth engines,fueled by both recent immigration and natural increase. The two largest of these new minorities, Hispanicsand Asians, each grew about 43 percent—together accounting for more than 60 percent of the nation’spopulation growth over the last decade. Blacks, growing at 12 percent, contributed far less, making the oldimage of a largely white-black U.S. population more than obsolete.Yet this new sweep of diversity is not affecting all parts of the country evenly—a fact that has created wedgeissues across many segments of society. An earlier State of Metropolitan America report showed thatracial and ethnic shifts are much more prevalent among youth than among older age groups, leading tothe potential emergence of cultural generation gaps.
This report takes a spatial perspective to illuminatehow the largest new minorities—Hispanics and Asians—though relatively concentrated in a few largemetropolitan areas, are gradually spreading out to new destinations.Understanding this contemporary diaspora requires a more detailed focus on the origin and nationality ofthe new minorities. Many observers con
ate Hispanic growth patterns with Mexican Americans, the largestsingle group of Hispanics as de
ned by the census. This report examines the degree to which the latter arepropelling overall dispersal and where these patterns lie. Compared with Hispanics, Asian Americans areless dominated by a single ethnic group and have been altered more substantially by recent immigrantsfrom several origins. The composition of the Asian populations, and the speci
c origin groups driving itsdispersion during a decade when this population grew most rapidly, is explored in this report.Despite the large contributions of Hispanics and Asians to recent growth, blacks still remain the dominantminority in many metropolitan areas. The black population is particularly noteworthy this past decade for itsshifts across metro areas within the United States, and for its accelerating return to the South.Following a discussion of methods and data, the
ndings detail how sharply these new minority growthpatterns alter the demographic pro
les of large metropolitan areas and reduce the white populationpresence in many of them. This is followed by an examination of neighborhood residential segregation ofHispanics, Asians and blacks in large metropolitan areas. The report concludes with a brief discussion ofwhat these large metropolitan area racial and ethnic changes imply for the new social and economic realitiesfacing these areas, and other parts of the country.
Data for this study draw from U.S. decennial censuses of 1990, 2000, and 2010.
Racial and ethnic classi
The decennial census asks two separate questions on race and ethnicity.
rst asks the respondentwhether he/she is of Hispanic or Latino origin. Hispanics can identify several subgroups. This reportexamines in detail the largest numeric Hispanic subgroups: Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and Cubans. Peoplewho identify as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.The second question asks the respondent to identify his/her race; options on the 2010 decennial forminclude (among others) white, black/African American, Asian (with several sub-groups), American Indians,some other race, and one or more races. Following convention in earlier reports, this report focuses onnon-Hispanic members of each race group, speci
cally non-Hispanic whites, blacks, and Asians. SectionC and Appendix C are exceptions, focusing on all Asians (both Hispanic and non-Hispanic) as well as thelargest numeric Asian subgroups--Asian Indians and Chinese. Throughout, the report uses the term “newminorities” to refer to groups other than non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic blacks.