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Mineral Resources in India

Mineral Resources in India

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Published by 9290010274
Mineral Resources in India
Mineral Resources in India

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Published by: 9290010274 on Sep 03, 2011
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21
MINERALRESOURCESININDIA
21.1INTRODUCfION
Intheprevioustwolessons,wehavereadaboutland,soils,water,forestsandwildliferesources.Inthislesson,wewillstudyanothertwovitalresourcesnamelymineralsandmineralfuels.Mineralslikelandandwaterareinvaluabletreasuresoftheearth.Withoutthem,wecannotthinkofindustrialisationandhencethedevelopmentofoureconomy.Inmanycountries,theyarethemainsourceofnationalincome.Themostimportantcharacteristicsofmineralswhichhavebearingonourpresentandfuturewell-beingisthattheyarepracticallylost,onceused.Theyarenon-renewableresources,Hence,theneedtoconservetheseresourcesandtorecyclethemcannotbeoveremphasised.AmongthemanycausesofthefalloftheRomanEmpire,thedepletionofthemineraldepositandtheerosionofsoiIissaidtobeone.Evenduringtherecentpast,severalminingtownsturnedinto'ghosttowns'inmanypartsofthedevelopedworld.TheCanadiantownshipofElliotLakewhichturnedoutto
be
"thefirstnuclear-ageghosttown"isthemostrecentexampleofthisprocess.Builtatanenormouscostinresponsetothediscoveryofuraniuminmidfifties,itspopulationdeclinedfrom25,000in1958to5,000in1961assoonasanalternativesourcewasfoundbytheU.S.A.
It
onlyshowsthatprosperitybasedexclusivelyonmineralresourcescannotbetakenforgrantedaspermanent.Thesocialandeconomicdevelopmentofanationdependsonitscapacitytoutiliseitsnaturalresources,avoidingitswastefulusetotheextentpossible.Mineralandpowerresourcesareimportantnaturalresourceswhichhelpintheindustrialdevelopmentofanationandultimatelyinimprovingthestandardoflivingofthepeople.Inthislesson.wewillbestudyingsomeoftheimportantminerals,mineralfuels,theirgeographicaldistributionproblemsassociatedwiththeseresourcesandtheneedfortheirconservation.
 
MineralResourcesinIndia.:430
21.2OBJECTIVES
\
Afterstudyingthislesson,youwill
be
ableto:
explaintheimportanceofmineralsandpowerresourcesforthedevelopmentofacountry;listthemineralsinwhichIndiaissurplus,selfsufficientanddeficient;locatetheimportantareasofconcentrationofmineralsandmineralfuelsonthemapofIndia;listtheimportantminingareasofironores,bauxite.mangan~se,limestoneandmica;explaintheneedandmethodsofconservationofmineralsandmineralfuelsofourcountry.
21.3MINERALSININDIA
India'smineralresourcesaresufficientlyrichandvariedtoprovidethecountrywithastrongindustrialbase.Thecountryisparticularlyrichinthemetallicmineralsoftheferrousgroupsuchasironores,manganese,chromiteandtitanium.
It
hastheworld'slargestreservesinmicaandbauxite.Thesituationisalsosatisfactoryincoal,felspar,fluorides;limestone,dolomiteandgypsum.Butthereservesofpetroleumandsomenon-ferrousmetallicmineralsespeciallycopper,lead,zinc,tin,graphiteareinadequate.Countryfulfilsinternaldemandsforthesemetal1icmineralsbyimportingthemfromothercountries.
*
Indiaisrichinthemetalicmineralsoftheferousgroupssuchasironores,manganese,chromiteandtitanium.Butthereservesofpetroleumandsomenonferousmetalicmineralsespeciallycopper,lead,zinc,tin,graphiteareinadequate.
21.4MINERALFUELS
Mineralfuelsincludecoal,petroleum,naturalgasandatomicorradio-activeminerals.
(a)Coal
Inindia,coalistheprimarysourceofcommercialenergy.
It
isusedasfuelanindustries,thermalpowerstationsandalsofordomesticpurposesinsomepartsofthecountry.
It
isalsousedasarawmaterialinchemicalandfertiliserindustriesandintheproductionofthousandsofitemsofdaiIyuse.AspertheassessmentofJanuary,1996,thetotalcoalreservesofthecountrystandat2,01,95,370milliontonnes.Unfortunately,thebulkoftheIndiancoalreservesareofratherpoorquality.Wemeet
part
ofourcokingcoalrequirementsthroughimport.InIndia,emphasisisbeinglaidonsettingthermalandsuperthennalpowerstationonornearthecoalfieldsandelectricitygeneratedissuppliedtofaroffplacesthroughtransmissionlines.AtonetimeIndianrailwayswerethelargestconsumerofcoal.Sincetheyhaveswitchedontotheuseofdieselandelectricitytheyarenomorethedirectconsumerofcoal.
 
431::Geography
TABLE21.1ProductionofCoalinIndia(includingLignite)
YearProduction
(10
MillionTonnes)1950-5132.81960-6155.71970-71
76.3
1980-81118.81990-91225.71995-96270.1(plus22milliontonnesoflignite)
Distribution
CoalinIndiaoccursintwoimportanttypesofcoalfields.TheyaretheGondwanacoalfieldsandTertiarycoalfields.Outofthe
total
coalreservesandproduction
in
India.Gondwanacoalfieldscontribute98%andtherest2%isproducedbytertiarycoalfields.TheGondwana
coal
fieldsarelocatedinthesedimentaryrocksystemsoflowerGondwanaAge.TheyaredistributedchieflyinthevalleysoftheDamodar(Bihar-WestBengal);theSon(Madhya.Pradesh);theMahanadi(Orissa),theGodavari(AndhraPradesh)andtheWardha(Maharashtra).Tetiarycoalfieldsoccurintheextra-peninsularareaswhichincludeAssam,Meghalaya,Nagaland,ArunachalPradesh,Jammu
&
KashmirandSikkim.BiharrankshighestinproductionaswellasreservesofcoalinIndia.ThecoaldepositesofBiharoccurinDhanbad,.HazaribaghandPalamaudistrict.InDhanbaddistrictthemostimportantcoalfieldsofJhariaand
Chandrapuraare
located.TheoldestcoalfieldsofRaniganjissituatedinWestBengal.ItisthesecondlargestcoalfieldinIndia.RaniganjcoalfieldstretchesoverBurdwanandPuruliadistricts.InMadhyaPradesh,coaldepositsoccurinSidhi,Shahdol,Chhindwara,BiJaspurandSargujadistricts.SingraulicoalfieldinShadholandSidhidistrictsisthelargestinthestate.InAndhraPradesh,coaloccursinthedistrictofAdilabad,Karimnagar,Warangal,KhammamandWestGodavari.InOrissa,Talcherisanimportantcoalfield.OthercoalfieldareinSambalpurandSundargarhdistricts.InMaharashtrathecoalfieldsarefoundinthedistrictsofChandrapura,YeotmalandNagpur.IncomparisontoIndia'scoalreserves,lignitereservesarerelativelymodest.ThebulkoflignitereservesarelocatedinandaroundNeyveliinTami
I
Nadu.SignificantlignitereservesarefoundinRajasthan,Gujurat,Pondicheryand
J
&
K.Coalisusedasrawmaterialinchemicalandfertiliserindustriesandintheproductionofthousandsofitemsofdailyuse.
*
CoalaremainlyfoundintheGondwanaandTertiarycoalfield.
*
ThestatesofBihar,WestBengal.MadhyaPradesh.AndhraPradeshandOrissaaretheleadingproducersofcoal.
*
ThebulkoflignitereservesarefoundinandaroundNeyveJiinTamilNadu.

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