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Table Of Contents

Introduction
Fundamentals of preparing polished sections
2.1 Selection and sampling
2.2 Sectioning
2.3 Mounting and impregnation
2.3.1 Hot (compression) mounting
2.3.2 Cold mounting
2.3.3 Recovery of embedded samples
2.3.4 Impregnation
2.4 GRINDING, LAPPING, AND POLISHING 17
2.4 Grinding, lapping, and polishing
2.4.2 Grinding
2.4.3 Materialographic lapping
2.4.4 Polishing
Revealing the microstructure
3.1 Microstructural imaging in the optical microscope (OM)
3.1.1 Imaging methods of optical microscopy
3.1.2 Electronic image processing and contrast enhancement
5.2 TIPS ON CONTRAST ENHANCEMENT AND ETCHING 39
3.2 Tips on contrast enhancement and etching
3.2.2 Contrast enhancement with interference layers
3.2J Chemical dip etching
3.2.4 Thermal etching
3.2.5 Plasma etching
3.2.6 Ion etching
3.2.7 Electrolytic etching
3.3 Microstructural imaging in the scanning electron microscope
3.4 Ultrasonic scanning microscopy
4 Material-specific preparation of polished sections
4.1 PROPERTIES OF CERAMIC MATERIALS 61
4.1 Properties of ceramic materials
4.2 PORES IN CERAMIC MATERIALS 67
4.2 Pores in ceramic materials
Aluminum oxide ceramic: 99.5% a-Al203
Aliuninum oxide ceramic: 99.7% a-Al203
Aluminum oxide ceramic: a-AliOa with SiOi and MgO additives
Aluminum oxide ceramic: a-Al203 with glass phase
Aluminum nitride AIN sintered
Boron carbide B4C, high density
Boron nitride BN, sintered
Calcium carbonate CaCOa, white marble
Cerium oxide Ce02
Chromite
Refractory ceramics
Graphite
Coal
Lanthanum strontium manganese oxide
Silicon carbide SiC, pressureless-sintered
Silicon carbide varistor ceramic
Silicon nitride Si3N4, hot-pressed
Si-SiC-C ceramic
Zinc oxide ZnO
Zirconium oxide ZrOi
Zirconium oxide, partially stabilized with MgO and Si02:
4.4 Preparation of ceramic composites
4.5 Examples of preparing ceramic composites
Aluminum alloy reinforced with boron fibers
Glass fiber reinforced plastic
Solder glass/stainless steel joint
Ceramic/cermet composite
Carbon fiber reinforced carbons
Carbon fiber reinforced plastic
Spherical Nuclear Fuel
Copper coating on an aluminum nitride ceramic
Plasma-sprayed aluminum oxide coating on steel
Plasma-sprayed zirconium oxide coating on a niclcel super alloy
SiC/C fibers in an aluminium alloy
Titanium carbide coating on graphite
Titanium nitride coating on an Inconel alloy
WC-Co carbide metal
Preparing polished sections for examination
5.1 Polished sections
5.1.1 Oblique sections
5.1.2 Controlled removal
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Ceramics and Ceramic Composites Materialographic Preparation

Ceramics and Ceramic Composites Materialographic Preparation

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Published by: shavyshavy on Sep 04, 2011
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11/05/2012

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