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Table Of Contents

Distribution
Acknowledgments
Introduction
1 The Organization of the Screen
1.1 Point
1.2 The Echo Area
1.3 The Mode Line
2 Characters, Keys and Commands
2.1 Kinds of User Input
2.2 Keys
2.3 Keys and Commands
3 Entering and Exiting Emacs
3.1 Entering Emacs
3.2 Exiting Emacs
4 Basic Editing Commands
4.1 Inserting Text
4.2 Changing the Location of Point
4.3 Erasing Text
4.4 Undoing Changes
4.5 Files
4.6 Help
4.7 Blank Lines
4.8 Continuation Lines
4.9 Cursor Position Information
4.10 Numeric Arguments
4.11 Repeating a Command
5 The Minibuffer
5.1 Minibuffers for File Names
5.2 Editing in the Minibuffer
5.3 Completion
5.3.1 Completion Example
5.3.2 Completion Commands
5.3.3 Strict Completion
5.3.4 Completion Options
5.4 Minibuffer History
5.5 Repeating Minibuffer Commands
5.6 Entering passwords
6 Running Commands by Name
7 Help
7.1 Documentation for a Key
7.2 Help by Command or Variable Name
7.3 Apropos
7.4 Help Mode Commands
7.5 Keyword Search for Lisp Libraries
7.6 Help for International Language Support
7.7 Other Help Commands
7.8 Help Files
7.9 Help on Active Text and Tooltips
8 The Mark and the Region
8.1 Setting the Mark
8.2 Commands to Mark Textual Objects
8.3 Operating on the Region
8.4 The Mark Ring
8.5 The Global Mark Ring
8.6 Shift Selection
8.7 Persistent Marks
9 Killing and Moving Text
9.1 Deletion and Killing
9.1.1 Deletion
9.1.2 Killing by Lines
9.1.3 Other Kill Commands
9.1.4 Options for Killing
9.2 Yanking
9.2.1 The Kill Ring
9.2.2 Appending Kills
9.2.3 Yanking Earlier Kills
9.3 Accumulating Text
9.4 Rectangles
9.5 CUA Bindings
10 Registers
10.1 Saving Positions in Registers
10.2 Saving Text in Registers
10.3 Saving Rectangles in Registers
10.4 Saving Window Configurations in Registers
10.5 Keeping Numbers in Registers
10.6 Keeping File Names in Registers
10.7 Bookmarks
11 Controlling the Display
11.1 Scrolling
11.2 Automatic Scrolling
11.3 Horizontal Scrolling
11.4 Follow Mode
11.5 Faces: Controlling Text Display Style
11.6 Standard Faces
11.7 Temporary Face Changes
11.8 Font Lock mode
11.9 Interactive Highlighting
11.10 Window Fringes
11.11 Displaying Boundaries
11.12 Useless Whitespace
11.13 Selective Display
11.14 Optional Mode Line Features
11.15 How Text Is Displayed
11.16 Displaying the Cursor
11.17 Truncation of Lines
11.18 Visual Line Mode
11.19 Customization of Display
12 Searching and Replacement
12.1 Incremental Search
12.1.1 Basics of Incremental Search
12.1.2 Repeating Incremental Search
12.1.3 Errors in Incremental Search
12.1.4 Special Input for Incremental Search
12.1.5 Isearch Yanking
12.1.6 Scrolling During Incremental Search
12.1.7 Searching the Minibuffer
12.1.8 Slow Terminal Incremental Search
12.2 Nonincremental Search
12.3 Word Search
12.4 Regular Expression Search
12.5 Syntax of Regular Expressions
12.6 Backslash in Regular Expressions
12.7 Regular Expression Example
12.8 Searching and Case
12.9 Replacement Commands
12.9.1 Unconditional Replacement
12.9.2 Regexp Replacement
12.9.3 Replace Commands and Case
12.9.4 Query Replace
12.10 Other Search-and-Loop Commands
13 Commands for Fixing Typos
13.1 Undo
13.2 Transposing Text
13.3 Case Conversion
13.4 Checking and Correcting Spelling
14 Keyboard Macros
14.1 Basic Use
14.2 The Keyboard Macro Ring
14.3 The Keyboard Macro Counter
14.4 Executing Macros with Variations
14.5 Naming and Saving Keyboard Macros
14.6 Editing a Keyboard Macro
14.7 Stepwise Editing a Keyboard Macro
15 File Handling
15.1 File Names
15.2 Visiting Files
15.3 Saving Files
15.3.1 Commands for Saving Files
15.3.2 Backup Files
15.3.2.1 Single or Numbered Backups
15.3.2.2 Automatic Deletion of Backups
15.3.2.3 Copying vs. Renaming
15.3.3 Customizing Saving of Files
15.3.4 Protection against Simultaneous Editing
15.3.5 Shadowing Files
15.3.6 Updating Time Stamps Automatically
15.4 Reverting a Buffer
15.5 Auto-Saving: Protection Against Disasters
15.5.1 Auto-Save Files
15.5.2 Controlling Auto-Saving
15.5.3 Recovering Data from Auto-Saves
15.6 File Name Aliases
15.7 File Directories
15.8 Comparing Files
15.9 Diff Mode
15.10 Miscellaneous File Operations
15.11 Accessing Compressed Files
15.12 File Archives
15.13 Remote Files
15.14 Quoted File Names
15.15 File Name Cache
15.16 Convenience Features for Finding Files
15.17 Filesets
16 Using Multiple Buffers
16.1 Creating and Selecting Buffers
16.2 Listing Existing Buffers
16.3 Miscellaneous Buffer Operations
16.4 Killing Buffers
16.5 Operating on Several Buffers
16.6 Indirect Buffers
16.7.1 Making Buffer Names Unique
16.7.2 Switching Between Buffers using Substrings
16.7.3 Customizing Buffer Menus
17 Multiple Windows
17.1 Concepts of Emacs Windows
17.2 Splitting Windows
17.3 Using Other Windows
17.4 Displaying in Another Window
17.5 Forcing Display in the Same Window
17.6 Deleting and Rearranging Windows
18 Frames and Graphical Displays
18.1 Killing and Yanking on Graphical Displays
18.1.1 Mouse Commands for Editing
18.1.2 Mouse Commands for Words and Lines
18.1.3 Cut and Paste with Other Window Applications
18.1.4 Secondary Selection
18.1.5 Using the Clipboard
18.2 Following References with the Mouse
18.3 Mouse Clicks for Menus
18.4 Mode Line Mouse Commands
18.5 Creating Frames
18.6 Frame Commands
18.7 Fonts
18.8 Speedbar Frames
18.9 Multiple Displays
18.10 Special Buffer Frames
18.11 Setting Frame Parameters
18.12 Scroll Bars
18.13 Scrolling With “Wheeled” Mice
18.14 Drag and Drop
18.15 Menu Bars
18.16 Tool Bars
18.17 Using Dialog Boxes
18.18 Tooltips
18.19 Mouse Avoidance
18.20 Non-Window Terminals
18.21 Using a Mouse in Terminal Emulators
19 International Character Set Support
19.1 Introduction to International Character Sets
19.2 Enabling Multibyte Characters
19.3 Language Environments
19.4 Input Methods
19.5 Selecting an Input Method
19.6 Coding Systems
19.7 Recognizing Coding Systems
19.8 Specifying a File’s Coding System
19.9 Choosing Coding Systems for Output
19.10 Specifying a Coding System for File Text
19.11 Coding Systems for Interprocess Communication
19.12 Coding Systems for File Names
19.13 Coding Systems for Terminal I/O
19.14 Fontsets
19.15 Defining fontsets
19.16 Modifying Fontsets
19.17 Undisplayable Characters
19.18 Unibyte Editing Mode
19.19 Charsets
20 Major Modes
20.1 How Major Modes are Chosen
21 Indentation
21.1 Indentation Commands and Techniques
21.2 Tab Stops
21.3 Tabs vs. Spaces
22 Commands for Human Languages
22.1 Words
22.2 Sentences
22.3 Paragraphs
22.4 Pages
22.5 Filling Text
22.5.1 Auto Fill Mode
22.5.2 Explicit Fill Commands
22.5.3 The Fill Prefix
22.5.4 Adaptive Filling
22.5.5 Refill Mode
22.5.6 Long Lines Mode
22.6 Case Conversion Commands
22.7 Text Mode
22.8 Outline Mode
22.8.1 Format of Outlines
22.8.2 Outline Motion Commands
22.8.3 Outline Visibility Commands
22.8.4 Viewing One Outline in Multiple Views
22.8.5 Folding Editing
22.12.6 Indentation in Formatted Text
22.12.7 Justification in Formatted Text
22.12.8 Setting Other Text Properties
22.12.9 Forcing Enriched Mode
22.13 Editing Text-based Tables
22.13.1 What is a Text-based Table?
22.13.2 How to Create a Table?
22.13.3 Table Recognition
22.13.4 Commands for Table Cells
22.13.5 Cell Justification
22.13.6 Commands for Table Rows
22.13.7 Commands for Table Columns
22.13.8 Fix Width of Cells
22.13.9 Conversion Between Plain Text and Tables
22.13.10 Analyzing Table Dimensions
22.13.11 Table Miscellany
23 Editing Programs
23.1 Major Modes for Programming Languages
23.2 Top-Level Definitions, or Defuns
23.2.1 Left Margin Convention
23.2.2 Moving by Defuns
23.2.3 Imenu
23.2.4 Which Function Mode
23.3 Indentation for Programs
23.3.1 Basic Program Indentation Commands
23.3.2 Indenting Several Lines
23.3.3 Customizing Lisp Indentation
23.3.4 Commands for C Indentation
23.3.5 Customizing C Indentation
23.4 Commands for Editing with Parentheses
23.4.1 Expressions with Balanced Parentheses
23.4.2 Moving in the Parenthesis Structure
23.4.3 Automatic Display Of Matching Parentheses
23.5 Manipulating Comments
23.5.1 Comment Commands
23.5.2 Multiple Lines of Comments
23.5.3 Options Controlling Comments
23.6 Documentation Lookup
23.6.1 Info Documentation Lookup
23.6.2 Man Page Lookup
23.6.3 Emacs Lisp Documentation Lookup
23.7 Hideshow minor mode
23.8 Completion for Symbol Names
23.9 Glasses minor mode
23.10 Semantic
23.11 Other Features Useful for Editing Programs
23.12 C and Related Modes
23.12.1 C Mode Motion Commands
23.12.2 Electric C Characters
23.12.3 Hungry Delete Feature in C
23.12.4 Other Commands for C Mode
23.13 Asm Mode
24 Compiling and Testing Programs
24.1 Running Compilations under Emacs
24.2 Compilation Mode
24.3 Subshells for Compilation
24.4 Searching with Grep under Emacs
24.5 Finding Syntax Errors On The Fly
24.6 Running Debuggers Under Emacs
24.6.1 Starting GUD
24.6.2 Debugger Operation
24.6.3 Commands of GUD
24.6.4 GUD Customization
24.6.5 GDB Graphical Interface
24.6.5.1 GDB User Interface Layout
24.6.5.2 Source Buffers
24.6.5.3 Breakpoints Buffer
24.6.5.4 Stack Buffer
24.6.5.5 Other Buffers
24.6.5.6 Watch Expressions
24.6.5.7 Reverse Debugging
24.7 Executing Lisp Expressions
24.8 Libraries of Lisp Code for Emacs
24.9 Evaluating Emacs Lisp Expressions
24.10 Lisp Interaction Buffers
24.11 Running an External Lisp
25 Maintaining Large Programs
25.1 Version Control
25.1.1 Introduction to Version Control
25.1.1.1 Understanding the problems it addresses
25.1.1.2 Supported Version Control Systems
25.1.1.3 Concepts of Version Control
25.1.1.4 Types of Log File
25.1.2 Version Control and the Mode Line
25.1.3 Basic Editing under Version Control
25.1.3.1 Basic Version Control with Merging
25.1.3.2 Basic Version Control with Locking
25.1.3.3 Advanced Control in C-x v v
25.1.3.4 Features of the Log Entry Buffer
25.1.4 Examining And Comparing Old Revisions
25.1.5 The Secondary Commands of VC
25.1.5.1 Registering a File for Version Control
25.1.5.2 VC Change Log
25.1.5.3 Undoing Version Control Actions
25.1.6 VC Directory Mode
25.1.6.1 The VC Directory Buffer
25.1.6.2 VC Directory Commands
25.1.7 Multiple Branches of a File
25.1.7.1 Switching between Branches
25.1.7.2 Creating New Branches
25.1.7.3 Merging Branches
25.1.7.4 Multi-User Branching
25.2 Change Logs
25.2.1 Change Log Commands
25.2.2 Format of ChangeLog
25.3 Tags Tables
25.3.1 Source File Tag Syntax
25.3.2 Creating Tags Tables
25.3.3 Etags Regexps
25.3.4 Selecting a Tags Table
25.3.5 Finding a Tag
25.3.6 Searching and Replacing with Tags Tables
25.3.7 Tags Table Inquiries
25.4 Emacs Development Environment
26 Abbrevs
26.1 Abbrev Concepts
26.2 Defining Abbrevs
26.3 Controlling Abbrev Expansion
26.4 Examining and Editing Abbrevs
26.5 Saving Abbrevs
26.6 Dynamic Abbrev Expansion
26.7 Customizing Dynamic Abbreviation
28.3 Moving Among Messages
28.4 Deleting Messages
28.5 Rmail Files and Inboxes
28.6 Multiple Rmail Files
28.7 Copying Messages Out to Files
28.8 Labels
28.9 Rmail Attributes
28.10 Sending Replies
28.11 Summaries
28.11.1 Making Summaries
28.11.2 Editing in Summaries
28.12 Sorting the Rmail File
28.13 Display of Messages
28.14 Rmail and Coding Systems
28.15 Editing Within a Message
28.16 Digest Messages
28.17 Reading Rot13 Messages
28.18 movemail program
28.19 Retrieving Mail from Remote Mailboxes
28.20 Retrieving Mail from Local Mailboxes in Various Formats
29 Dired, the Directory Editor
29.1 Entering Dired
29.2 Navigation in the Dired Buffer
29.3 Deleting Files with Dired
29.4 Flagging Many Files at Once
29.5 Visiting Files in Dired
29.6 Dired Marks vs. Flags
29.7 Operating on Files
29.8 Shell Commands in Dired
29.9 Transforming File Names in Dired
29.10 File Comparison with Dired
29.11 Subdirectories in Dired
29.12 Moving Over Subdirectories
29.13 Hiding Subdirectories
29.14 Updating the Dired Buffer
29.15 Dired and find
29.16 Editing the Dired Buffer
29.17 Viewing Image Thumbnails in Dired
29.18 Other Dired Features
30 The Calendar and the Diary
30.1 Movement in the Calendar
30.1.1 Motion by Standard Lengths of Time
30.1.2 Beginning or End of Week, Month or Year
30.1.3 Specified Dates
30.2 Scrolling in the Calendar
30.3 Counting Days
30.4 Miscellaneous Calendar Commands
30.5 Writing Calendar Files
30.6 Holidays
M-x holidays
30.7 Times of Sunrise and Sunset
30.8 Phases of the Moon
30.9 Conversion To and From Other Calendars
30.9.1 Supported Calendar Systems
30.9.2 Converting To Other Calendars
30.9.3 Converting From Other Calendars
30.9.4 Converting from the Mayan Calendar
30.10 The Diary
30.10.1 Displaying the Diary
30.10.2 The Diary File
30.10.3 Date Formats
30.10.4 Commands to Add to the Diary
30.10.5 Special Diary Entries
30.11 Appointments
30.12 Importing and Exporting Diary Entries
30.13 Daylight Saving Time
30.14 Summing Time Intervals
31 Miscellaneous Commands
31.1 Document Viewing
31.1.1 Navigation
31.1.2 Searching
31.1.3 Slicing
31.1.4 Conversion
31.2 Gnus
31.2.1 Gnus Buffers
31.2.2 When Gnus Starts Up
31.2.3 Summary of Gnus Commands
31.3 Running Shell Commands from Emacs
31.3.1 Single Shell Commands
31.3.2 Interactive Inferior Shell
31.3.3 Shell Mode
31.3.4 Shell Prompts
31.3.5 Shell Command History
31.3.5.1 Shell History Ring
31.3.5.2 Shell History Copying
31.3.5.3 Shell History References
31.3.6 Directory Tracking
31.3.7 Shell Mode Options
31.3.8 Emacs Terminal Emulator
31.3.9 Term Mode
31.3.10 Page-At-A-Time Output
31.3.11 Remote Host Shell
31.3.12 Serial Terminal
31.4 Using Emacs as a Server
31.4.1 Invoking emacsclient
31.4.2 emacsclient Options
31.5 Printing Hard Copies
31.6 PostScript Hardcopy
31.7 Variables for PostScript Hardcopy
31.8 Printing Package
31.9 Sorting Text
31.10 Narrowing
31.11 Two-Column Editing
31.12 Editing Binary Files
31.13 Saving Emacs Sessions
31.14 Recursive Editing Levels
31.15 Emulation
31.16 Hyperlinking and Navigation Features
31.16.1 Following URLs
31.16.2 Activating URLs
31.16.3 Finding Files and URLs at Point
31.17 Dissociated Press
31.18 Other Amusements
32 Customization
32.1 Minor Modes
32.2 Easy Customization Interface
32.2.1 Customization Groups
32.2.2 Browsing and Searching for Options and Faces
32.2.3 Changing a Variable
32.2.4 Saving Customizations
32.2.5 Customizing Faces
32.2.6 Customizing Specific Items
32.2.7 Customization Themes
32.3 Variables
32.3.1 Examining and Setting Variables
32.3.2 Hooks
32.3.3 Local Variables
32.3.4 Local Variables in Files
32.3.4.1 Specifying File Variables
32.3.4.2 Safety of File Variables
32.3.5 Per-Directory Local Variables
32.4 Customizing Key Bindings
32.4.1 Keymaps
32.4.2 Prefix Keymaps
32.4.3 Local Keymaps
32.4.4 Minibuffer Keymaps
32.4.5 Changing Key Bindings Interactively
32.4.6 Rebinding Keys in Your Init File
32.4.7 Modifier Keys
32.4.8 Rebinding Function Keys
32.4.9 Named ASCII Control Characters
32.4.10 Rebinding Mouse Buttons
32.4.11 Disabling Commands
32.5 The Syntax Table
32.6 The Init File, ‘~/.emacs’
32.6.1 Init File Syntax
32.6.2 Init File Examples
32.6.3 Terminal-specific Initialization
32.6.4 How Emacs Finds Your Init File
32.6.5 Non-ASCII Characters in Init Files
33 Dealing with Common Problems
33.1 Quitting and Aborting
33.2 Dealing with Emacs Trouble
33.2.1 If DEL Fails to Delete
33.2.2 Recursive Editing Levels
33.2.3 Garbage on the Screen
33.2.4 Garbage in the Text
33.2.5 Running out of Memory
33.2.6 Recovery After a Crash
33.2.7 Emergency Escape
33.2.8 Help for Total Frustration
33.3 Reporting Bugs
33.3.1 When Is There a Bug
33.3.2 Understanding Bug Reporting
33.3.3 Checklist for Bug Reports
33.5 How To Get Help with GNU Emacs
Appendix B GNU Free Documentation License
C.1 Action Arguments
C.2 Initial Options
C.3 Command Argument Example
C.4 Resuming Emacs with Arguments
C.5 Environment Variables
C.5.1 General Variables
C.5.2 Miscellaneous Variables
C.5.3 The MS-Windows System Registry
C.6 Specifying the Display Name
C.7 Font Specification Options
C.8 Window Color Options
C.9 Options for Window Size and Position
C.10 Internal and External Borders
C.11 Frame Titles
C.12 Icons
C.13 Other Display Options
Appendix D X Options and Resources
D.1 X Resources
D.2 Table of X Resources for Emacs
D.3 X Resources for Faces
D.4 Lucid Menu X Resources
D.5 GTK resources
Appendix E Emacs 22 Antinews
F.1 Basic Emacs usage under Mac OS and GNUstep
F.1.1 Grabbing environment variables
F.2 Mac / GNUstep Customization
F.2.1 Font and Color Panels
F.2.2 Open files by dragging to an Emacs window
F.3 Windowing System Events under Mac OS / GNUstep
F.4 GNUstep Support
G.1 Text Files and Binary Files
G.2 File Names on MS-Windows
G.3 Emulation of ls on MS-Windows
G.4 HOME Directory on MS-Windows
G.5 Keyboard Usage on MS-Windows
G.6 Mouse Usage on MS-Windows
G.8 Printing and MS-Windows
G.9 Specifying Fonts on MS-Windows
G.10 Miscellaneous Windows-specific features
The GNU Manifesto
What’s GNU? Gnu’s Not Unix!
Why I Must Write GNU
Why GNU Will Be Compatible with Unix
How GNU Will Be Available
Why Many Other Programmers Want to Help
How You Can Contribute
Why All Computer Users Will Benefit
Some Easily Rebutted Objections to GNU’s Goals
Glossary
Key (Character) Index
Command and Function Index
Variable Index
Concept Index
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