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Published by Emily Gong

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Published by: Emily Gong on Oct 05, 2008
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Emily Gong
AP US History
Period 2
December 20, 2007
Chapter 24: The New Era

DQ #8: Why was the \u201cNew Era\u201d of the 1920s a Republican era and one in which
Warren G. Harding and Calvin Coolidge were elected as presidents? Discuss
the ways in which their personalities and policies reflected the times.

\u201cNew Era\u201d of 1920s---A Republican Era
A.A Return of \u201cNormalcy\u201d---Sense of Disillusionment
\u2022Post- war: a strong distaste against radicalisms & controversial conflicts
\u2022retreat from Progressive ideals\ue000 denouncement of labor unions
\u2022more sympathetic towards business than general public
B.Labor Unions
\u2022decreased membership & power\ue000labor- w/o power to protect their economic interest
\u2022frequent risk of unemployment for the working class & the petty wages received (in
comparison to the money from production & profit)\u2014ex. of the little control workers
\u2022the \u201cAmerican Plan\u201d: unionism\ue000somewhat subversive\ue000advocated \u201copen shop\u201d \u2013
keeping jobs open for non-union workers
\u2022Government Assistance:1921- Supreme Court ruling: declared picketing illegal;

supported courts to issue injunctions against courts.1922- Justice Department
intervened to quell a railroad strike.1924- court refusal to afford protection to the
United Mine Workers members against violent campaign of mine owners to break

C.Consolidation of Corporations
\u2022growing trend toward corporation consolidation- 1929- 200 largest corp. held49% of
corporate wealth & received43% corp. income
\u2022oligopoly of two to four firms dominated in most fields; also trade associations-
cooperation among businesses to attempt consolidation in less centralizing business
fields & stabilize economy
\u2022government regulatory agencies- Federal Trade Commission &Interstate
Commerce Commission\ue000passive; controlled by businessmen\ue000didn\u2019t enforce
antitrust laws
\u2022consolidation of banking as well- growth in branch banking\ue000 1929-3.2% of banks
with branch operations controlled46% of banking resources
D.Foreign Policies
\u2022main focus in international affairs: increase American economic prosperity
\u2022Reparations of war debts from Europe: the Dawes Plan- America loan money to
Germany, Germany pays back to Allies, Allies repays America
\u2022Latin American Investments: increased investments in Latin America --- $5.4 billion
Warren G. Harding vs. Calvin Coolidge
Warren G. Harding
Calvin Coolidge
amiable, yet had limited intellectual and
organizational abilities

personal weaknesses: heavy gambler, heavy
drinker, penchant for attractive women---
regularly played poker, stocked White House
with bootleg liquor, affair with Nan Britton

lacked strength to rebel against party bosses

that helped create his political success\ue000
appointed governmental offices for the prime
contributors: Harry Daugherty (Attorney

General) & Albert B. Fall (Secretary of
Scandals: Veterans\u2019 Bureau- Charles R.
Forbes- stole about $250 million in bureau
funds ;Daughtery- bribes from bootleggers,
Honest, laconic, taciturn, thrifty \u2013 his belief:

\u201cFour-fifths of all our troubles in this world would
disappear if only we would sit down and keep

provided no presidential leadership
believed in limited government that stood aside
while business conducted its own affairs
trimmed the federal budget, reduce dramatically
WWI debt

vetoed laws involving veterans\u2019 bonus,
government operations on dam projects in
Tennessee, &McNa ry-Haugen Bill ( involved

parity of farm products)

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