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Inequalities proposed in

“Crux Mathematicorum”

(from vol. 1, no. 1 to vol. 4, no. 2 known as “Eureka”)

Complete and up-to-date: October 7, 2006The best problem solving journal all over the world; visit

http://journals.cms.math.ca/CRUX/

(An asterisk (

⋆

) after a number indicates that a problem was proposed without a solution.)

2.

Proposed by L´eo Sauv´e, Algonquin College.

A rectangular array of

m

rows and

n

columns contains

mn

distinct real numbers. For

i

=1

,

2

,...,m

, let

s

i

denote the smallest number of the

i

th

row; and for

j

= 1

,

2

,...,n

, let

l

j

denotethe largest number of the

j

th

column. Let

A

= max

{

s

i

}

and

B

= min

{

l

j

}

. Compare

A

and

B

.

14.

Proposed by Viktors Linis, University of Ottawa.

If

a,b,c

are lengths of three segments which can form a triangle, show the same for

1

a

+

c

,

1

b

+

c

,

1

a

+

b

.

17.

Proposed by Viktors Linis, University of Ottawa.

Prove the inequality12

·

34

·

56

···

9999991000000

<

11000

.

23.

Proposed by L´eo Sauv´e, Coll`ege Algonquin.

D´eterminer s’il existe une suite

{

u

n

}

d’entiers naturels telle que, pour

n

= 1

,

2

,

3

,...

, on ait2

u

n

<

2

n

+ 1

<

2

1+

u

n

25.

Proposed by Viktors Linis, University of Ottawa.

Find the smallest positive value of 36

k

−

5

l

where

k

and

l

are positive integers.

29.

Proposed by Viktors Linis, University of Ottawa.

Cut a square into a minimal number of triangles with all angles acute.

36.

Proposed by L´eo Sauv´e, Coll`ege Algonquin.

Si

m

et

n

sont des entiers positifs, montrer quesin

2

m

θ

cos

2

n

θ

≤

m

m

n

n

(

m

+

n

)

m

+

n

,

et d`eterminer les valeurs de

θ

pour lesquelles il y a ´egalit´e.

54.

Proposed by L´eo Sauv´e, Coll`ege Algonquin.

Si

a,b,c >

0 et

a < b

+

c

, montrer que

a

1 +

a<b

1 +

b

+

c

1 +

c.

66.

Proposed by John Thomas, University of Ottawa.

What is the largest non-trivial subgroup of the group of permutations on

n

elements?

74.

Proposed by Viktors Linis, University of Ottawa.

Prove that if the sides

a,b,c

of a triangle satisfy

a

2

+

b

2

=

kc

2

, then

k >

12

.

1

75.

Proposed by R. Duﬀ Butterill, Ottawa Board of Education.

M

is the midpoint of chord

AB

of the circle with centre

C

shownin the ﬁgure. Prove that

RS > MN

.

A BC M N P RS

79.

Proposed by John Thomas, University of Ottawa.

Show that, for

x >

0,

x

+1

x

sin(

t

2

)d

t

<

2

x

2

.

84.

Proposed by Viktors Linis, University of Ottawa.

Prove that for any positive integer

n

n

√

n <

1 +

2

n.

98.

Proposed by Viktors Linis, University of Ottawa.

Prove that, if 0

< a < b

, thenln

b

2

a

2

<ba

−

ab.

100.

Proposed by L´eo Sauv´e, Coll`ege Algonquin.

Soit

f

une fonction num´erique continue et non n´egative pour tout

x

≥

0. On suppose qu’il existeun nombre r´eel

a >

0 tel que, pout tout

x >

0,

f

(

x

)

≤

a

x

0

f

(

t

)d

t.

Montrer que la fonction

f

est nulle.

106.

Proposed by Viktors Linis, University of Ottawa.

Prove that, for any quadrilateral with sides

a,b,c,d

,

a

2

+

b

2

+

c

2

>

13

d

2

.

108.

Proposed by Viktors Linis, University of Ottawa.

Prove that, for all integers

n

≥

2,

n

k

=1

1

k

2

>

3

n

2

n

+ 1

.

110.

Proposed by H. G. Dworschak, Algonquin College.

(a) Let

AB

and

PR

be two chords of a circle intersecting at

Q

. If

A

,

B

, and

P

are kept ﬁxed, characterize geometrically the positionof

R

for which the length of

QR

is maximal. (See ﬁgure).(b) Give a Euclidean construction for the point

R

which maximizesthe length of

QR

, or show that no such construction is possible.

A BQP R

115.

Proposed by Viktors Linis, University of Ottawa.

Prove the following inequality of Huygens:2sin

α

+ tan

α

≥

3

α,

0

≤

α <π

2

.

2

119.

Proposed by John A. Tierney, United States Naval Academy.

A line through the ﬁrst quadrant point (

a,b

) forms a right triangle with the positive coordinateaxes. Find analytically the minimum perimeter of the triangle.

120.

Proposed by John A. Tierney, United States Naval Academy.

Given a point

P

inside an arbitrary angle, give a Euclidean construction of the line through

P

that determines with the sides of the angle a triangle(a) of minimum area;(b) of minimum perimeter.

135.

Proposed by Steven R. Conrad, Benjamin N. Cardozo H. S., Bayside, N. Y.

How many 3

×

5 rectangular pieces of cardboard can be cut from a 17

×

22 rectangular piece of cardboard so that the amount of waste is a minimum?

145.

Proposed by Walter Bluger, Department of National Health and Welfare.

A

pentagram

is a set of 10 points consisting of the vertices and the intersections of the diagonalsof a regular pentagon with an integer assigned to each point. The pentagram is said to be

magic

if the sums of all sets of 4 collinear points are equal.Construct a magic pentagram with the smallest possible positive primes.

150.

Proposed by Kenneth S. Williams, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario.

If

⌊

x

⌋

denotes the greatest integer

≤

x

, it is trivially true that

32

k

>

3

k

−

2

k

2

k

for

k

≥

1

,

and it seems to be a hard conjecture (see G. H. Hardy & E. M. Wright,

An Introduction to theTheory of Numbers

, 4th edition, Oxford University Press 1960, p. 337, condition (f)) that

32

k

≥

3

k

−

2

k

+ 22

k

−

1for

k

≥

4

.

Can one ﬁnd a function

f

(

k

) such that

32

k

≥

f

(

k

)with

f

(

k

) between

3

k

−

2

k

2

k

and

3

k

−

2

k

+22

k

−

1

?

160.

Proposed by Viktors Linis, University of Ottawa.

Find the integral part of

10

9

n

=1

n

−

23

.This problem is taken from the list submitted for the 1975 Canadian Mathematics Olympiad(but not used on the actual exam).

162.

Proposed by Viktors Linis, University of Ottawa.

If

x

0

= 5 and

x

n

+1

=

x

n

+

1

x

n

, show that45

< x

1000

<

45

.

1

.

This problem is taken from the list submitted for the 1975 Canadian Mathematics Olympiad(but not used on the actual exam).

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