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Energy efficiency improving and pellet uniformity control in the extrusion of aquafeed

Energy efficiency improving and pellet uniformity control in the extrusion of aquafeed

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How did Muyang increase energy efficiency of the extruder system? With the development of extrusion technology, one of the development trends in aquafeed milling is that the extruder is taking the place of pellet mill and becoming the most popular and most efficient milling machine because of its flexible production adaptability, high product quality and high sanitation assurance.
How did Muyang increase energy efficiency of the extruder system? With the development of extrusion technology, one of the development trends in aquafeed milling is that the extruder is taking the place of pellet mill and becoming the most popular and most efficient milling machine because of its flexible production adaptability, high product quality and high sanitation assurance.

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Published by: International Aquafeed magazine on Sep 05, 2011
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International Aquafeed is published five times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies,the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published.©Copyright 2009 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any formor by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058
September | October 2011Feature title: Energy efciency improving and pellet uniormity control in the extrusion o aquaeed
ow did Muyang increaseenergy efficiency of the extruder system?......With the developmentof extrusion technology, one of thedevelopment trends in aquafeedmilling is that the extruder is takingthe place of pellet mill and becomingthe most popular and most efficientmilling machine because of its flexibleproduction adaptability, high productquality and high sanitation assurance.
However, the obstacle impeding extrud-er popularisation is energy input, whichmust be decreased.As we all know, sufficient energy isrequired to put into the extrusion systemto sustain the whole extrusion process,from material conditioning to kneading,shearing, cooking, extruding, forming andfinally obtaining qualified aquafeed.Essentially, the input energy is normallydefined in two forms: the specific mechani-cal energy (SME) and thespecific thermal energy(STE).Analyzing the energyinputs that are requiredfor cooking raw recipecomponents, there arethree possible ways toimprove energy efficiencyof an extrusion system,that is, to increase production capacitywhile decrease the power consumption.They are:1) Improve the utilization efficiency of SME2) Improve the utilization efficiency of STE3) Try to input and utilize most STEfrom the relatively cheaper source -steam to substitute some SME input
Method to maximiseSME utilisation
First of all, the approach was studied tomatch the SEM input with that required formaterial ripening.If lower than that required, the inputSME could not ripen the material suf-ficiently even though it would result inhigher production capacity, and vice versa.Therefore, only proper SME input canguarantee high quality extruded aquafeedwhile maximising production capacity.By quantifying the abilities of each screwsegment (including conveying, shearing andmixing abilities) and testing the effectsof different screw combinations, Muyang’sextruder research team found out the opti-mal screw configuration that can achieveproper SEM input for a given aquafeedproduction task.Based on above mentioned studies anda perceptual as well as rational knowledgeof extrusion technology, Muyang’s extrusionteam worked out a new concept - “stabi-lised shearing”.Usually, the whole extrusion processthat material undergoes, from being fedinto the extruding chamber up to beingextruded out of the die plate, is a ‘hastyshearing’ process accompanied by highpressure, high power consumption andhigh wearing of working parts, and alsounconstant discharge of extrudates.The stabilised shearing technologybrought by Muyang Group can largely sta-bilise the shearing efficiency in the wholeextrusion process (see Figure 1). Theoptimal screw configurationcan not only impart to theextrusion process a properSME input but also ensure theproduct gelatinisation not lessthan that of the ‘hasty shearingtechnology’.It has been proven that,when producing aquafeed withstabilised shearing technology,
To substantially improve extruder performance in aquafeed production, in recent years Muyang Group made extensive research efforts into five aspects of extrusion and  gained some key achievements: to increase energy efficiency of the extruder, to enhance pellet uniformity, to lengthen the service life of wear parts, to increase productionrate for sinking aquafeeds as well as that of micro-aquafeed, among which, the energy efficiency improving technology and its application as well as the development on pellet uniformity control will be introduced in this article.
by Ma Liang, Zhang Kuiyang, Mi Changyu, Zhang Wenliang, Muyang R&D Center, China
Energy efficiency improvingand pellet uniformity control in theextrusion of aquafeed
Table 1:
SPTZ Complex Conditioner vs SCTZ DDC Conditioner
SPTZ series ComplexConditionerSCTZ series DDCConditionerFilling degree55~60%30~35%Conditioning time (s)180~20040~45Gelatinization50~55%35~40%Remarks With the same effective volume and capacity
18 | InnaIOnal
| September-October 2011-
F: Pellet uniformity
an extruder can increase the capacity by15 percent with an energy savage of 12percent per tonne of feed.
Method to maximiseSTE utilisation
Aquafeed mash needs to be pre-cookedin the conditioner with hot steam beforeentering into the extruder chamber forextrusion. How to maximise the utilisationof thermal energy from a given amountof steam, to improve the gelatinization of aquafeed mash in the conditioner, has beenthe focus of Muyang’s research efforts overmany years.The moisture and heat of steam is hardto penetrate into the core of feed mashparticles and ‘cook’ them just by the simplephysical mixing function of a conventionalconditioner, especially for the oil-rich aqua-feed mash.That means more steam and longerconditioning time has to be given in orderto achieve high mash gelatinisation.Targeting the goal of improving steamutilisation and enhancing feed gelatinisation,Muyang has invented the ‘reinforced condition-ing technology’, which can improve the massand heat transfer efficiency anduniformity of steam effectively.In addition, Muyang hasinnovated the SPTZ seriesComplex Conditioner by com-bining the reinforced conditioning technol-ogy with a Muyang SCTZ DDC Conditioner,which achieves excellent conditioning per-formance (see Table 1 and Figure 2).Besides, the production capacity of anextrusion system equipped with a SPTZ
Figure 2: SPTZ Complex Conditioner vs SCTZ DDCConditionerFigure 1: Stabilised shearing vs hasty shearing
-September-October 2011 | InnaIOnal
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F: Pellet uniformity
Usually, good pellet uniformity can begained when the extruder is running at70~80 percent of its rated load.Essentially, the non-uniform extrudedpellets are generated by materials lackinghomogeneity in the whole feed millingprocess. From grinding to mixing, condi-tioning, extruding and forming, material’slack of proper homogeneity in any of these processes will finally cause non-uniform extruded pellets.Fortunately, mate-rial homogeneity inthe grinding, mixingand conditioningprocesses is easy tobe controlled withavailable techniques.The most challenge isto control feed mashhomogeneity duringextruding.What are thecauses of non-uniform feed mashduring extruding (seeFigure 3)?1) Non-uniform shearingforce: The more difference of shearingforce brought by extruding screwstressing on feed mash, the more non-uniform gelatinisation and the morenon-uniform pellet finally achieved.2) Different flow rate: Flow rate of feedmash during extruding could be dif-ferent in two zones - the screw zonefeed mash is determined by conditionerpressure. For instance, conditioned bysaturated steam, the highest conditioningtemperature that feed mash can achieveis 100
under 0.1MPa while can reach164.19
under 0.6MPa.Therefore, on one hand, to make full useof steam thermal energy under ambientcondition and on the other hand to optimisethe conditioning pressure and maximise thesteam energy utilisation. The more the steamenergy being utilised by feed mash, the lessthe SME required for extrusion.The ‘substituting SME with steam ther-mal energy’ technology is widely used inMuyang extruders and has been proven tobe an effective and economic way.
How did Muyang controlpellet uniformity inaquafeed extrusion?
Good pellet uniformity and pleasingappearance are the important and attractivecharacters for high quality aquafeed.However, the relationship betweengood pellet uniform-ity and high productioncapacity is hard to bal-ance, just like you can’t have your cakeand eat it too, especially for the single-screw extruder. As the productioncapacity increases, the pellet uniformitydeclines.Complex Conditioner is able to increaseby 10-15 percent compared to that witha common DDC conditioner, because of the thorough pre-cooking function in theconditioning process.Furthermore, the enhanced pre-cookingcould bring in more stable running of themachine and less wear of the workingparts such as the segmented screws andextruding chamber liner, which alternativelyis saving maintenance cost.
Substitute SME withsteam thermal energy
As we all know, the same energy insteam thermal form is far cheaper than thatin electric power form. And the SME inputto a running extruder always comes fromelectric power supply. What if some part of the required electric power is substitutedwith steam thermal energy? The produc-tion cost of aquafeed will be decreasedsignificantly!During cook-ing, the amount of steam thermalenergy utilised by
Figure 5: Uniform extrudedaquafeed pelletsFigure 4: Non uniform flow rate vs uniform flow rate
20 | InnaIOnal
| September-October 2011-
F: Pellet uniformity
Figure 3: The causes of non-uniform feed mash during extruding
Nonuniformextruded pelletsNonuniformextruded pelletsNonuniformexpansion characterNonuniformexpansion character
NonuniformgelatinizationDifferent ripeningtimeNonuniformgelatinizationNonuniformripenessNonuniformshearing forceDifferentflow rate
Twin-screw Extruder inNovember 2009.With many sets reliably running in cus-tomers' feed mills for more than one year,the MY120×2
Twin-screw Extruder hasbeen proven to perform well in energyefficiency improving and pellet uniformitycontrol.It is applied to well distribute theshearing force in the screw zone andto unify the flow rate in both the screwzone and the non-screw zone (betweenend of screw and die plate) in anextruder chamber. The turbulent flowextruding technology can help extruder(especially the single-screw extruder)perform outstandingly in aquafeedproduction.
Application of Muyanginnovations
By integrating the stabilised shear-ing technology and the reinforcedconditioning technology as well as theturbulent flow extruding technology inone extruder, Muyang rolled out theand the non-screw zone (betweenthe end of screw and the die plate).The different flow rate of feed mashin the extruder will cause differentripening time, and different gelatinisa-tion as well as different pellets qualityaccordingly.For a normal extruder, the differenceof shearing force and that of flow rate arerelated to production capacity. The largerthe actual capacity that is close to the ratedvalue, the bigger the difference of shearingforce and that of flow rate.In view of above impacting factors,Muyang has developed the so called ‘turbu-lent flow extruding technology’ to controlpellet uniformity in aquafeed extrusion (seeFigure 4).
Table 2:
Test result of MY120×2
twin-screw extruder
No.FeedDie hole(mm)Main motorpower (kW)Load factor(%)Capacity(t/h)Floating / Sinkingrate (%)
1Floating fish feed5.0200687.6891002Floating fish feed1.020065.553.4791003Sinking fish feed3.020031.283.71499.65Note: The capacity was calculated on the basis of that the aquafeed pellets were dried to a moisture content of 10 percent
 Muyang GroupNo.1 Muyang Road Hanjiang Industrial ParkYangzhou ,Jiang su, 225127 China
Tel: +86 514 87848880Website: www.muyang.com
-September-October 2011 | InnaIOnal
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F: Pellet uniformity

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