ne of the challengesfaced by aquaculturetoday is the feeding of diets containing a highproportion of vegetable ingredients.
These new diets result in lower efficien-cies and growth due to reduced digestibilityas well as lower availability of minerals.Zinc is a trace mineral involved inessential life processes such as growth,reproduction, vision and immunity. Zinc bio-availability within the animal decreases dueto the formation of insoluble complexeswith dietary components; this leads to adeficiency. When confronting this situationthe inclusion of Biomet Zn Aqua in both fishand shrimp diets stands out as a solution toachieve adequate health and performance.Zinc is a specific cofactor of severalenzymes as well as an integral part of about 20 metalloenzymes, some of theminvolved with the digestion of proteins andcarbohydrates.In addition, zinc is associated withprostaglandinmetabolismand con-sequentlyimmuneresponse andreproduction(Watanabeet al. 1997).Therefore,zinc deficien-cy will nega-tively affectthe profitability of the farm as result of growth retardation, poor immune response,and reduced reproductive performance.Fish and shrimp can obtain zinc from twodifferent sources; water and diet. Seawaterand freshwater zinc concentrations range
BIOMET Zn Aqua
A organic zinc source for aquaculture practices
by Waldo G. Nuez-Ortín, DVM, MSc. Aquaculture Technical Manager, NOREL SA, Spain.Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. Website: www.norel.es
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Zinc fish requirements for different aquatic species.
Speciesmg Zn/kg dietReferenceRainbow trout 15-30
Ogino and Yang (1987)
Common carp 15-30
Ogino and Yang (1987)
Channel catfish 20
Gatlin and Wilson (1983)
Blue tilapia 20
McClain and Gatlin (1988)
Red drum 20-25
Gatlin et al. (1991)
Atlantic salmon > 67
Maage and Julshamn (1993)
Davis et al. (1993)
Tan and Mai (2001)
Basal diet 1 (0.7% Ca - normal) - Treatments 1-4g/ton feed T1-ControlT2-ZincsulfateT3-BIOMETZn Aqua*T4-ZincproteinateZn sulfate -80--BIOMET Zn --200-Zn proteinate ---133.3Basal diet 2 (1.4% Ca - normal) - Treatments 1-4g/ton feed T5-ControlT6-ZincsulfateT7-BIOMETZn Aqua*T8-ZincproteinateZn sulfate -80--BIOMET Zn --200-Zn proteinate ---133.3Supplemented Zn (ppm)-202020Total Zn (ppm)48686868Total methionine (%DM)0.60.60.60.6
*BIOMET Zn Aqua: 10% zinc/27.2% methionine Diets contained 36% soybean meal (44%), 18.5% yellow corn, 17% wheat flour, 14% fishmeal, herring (72%CP), 5.4% corn oil, 4% corn gluten meal (60% CP), 2% carboxymethyl cellulose, 0.15% vitamin premix, 0.05 % zinc- free micro minerals premix, 0.8% (Basal diet 1) and 2.9% (Basal diet 2)limestone, and 2.1% sand (only for Basal diet 1)
from 0.6-5 and 5-10μg/L, respectively; how-ever, even fish maintained in water contain-ing higher concentrations (10-25μg/L) werenot able to achieve optimal growth.Dietary zinc concentration depends oningredient composition. While zinc contentis high in fishmeal (80-100mg/kg), it is lowin cereal grains (15-30mg/kg) or proteinconcentrates (40-80mg/kg) (Watanabe etal. 1997).In spite of the low zinc content in somefeedstuffs, the low bioavailability resultingwhen feeding practical diets is mainly attrib-uted to the presence of phytate containedis most vegetable ingredients as well astri-calcium phosphate contained in fish mealor animal by-products (Alpines et al. 2001,Satoh et al. 1993).These dietary components form insolu-ble complexes with divalent cations of zincin stomach, reducing intestinal absorptionwhile increasing zinc excretion. As shownin Table 1, zinc requirements have beendetermined for different aquatic species.However, some of these requirements,such as those reported for channelcatfish, were determined when feedingpurified diets. In a later study using apractical diet containing phytate (Gatlinand Wilson 1984), zinc requirements forcatfish were established at 150 mg/kginstead of 20 mg/kg. Thus, both phytateand tri-calcium phosphate must be con-sidered by nutritionists when meetingzinc requirements.In order to avoid deficiencies, it is a com-mon practice to supplement inorganic saltsof zinc, such as zinc sulphates or zinc oxides.However, the formation of insolublezinc complexes persists and consequentlya high amount of these salts have to beadded in the ration in order to meetanimal requirements. In addition, inorganiczinc supplementa-tion negativelyaffects the waterenvironment, as itresults in greaterzinc excretion.Biomet ZnAqua is a solublezinc salt chelatedto an organic lig-and, methionine,which allows forthe formationof a biologicallystable ring struc-ture containingzinc. The wholestructure doesnot break apart instomach, avoiding the formation of insolublezinc complexes, and reaches the uptakesurfaces in intestine.Besides being easily absorbed acrossthe epithelial surface, this chelate allowsfor an easy release of zinc within bodytissues (Glover and Hongstrand 2001).Consequently, the supplementation withBIOMET Zn Aqua results in increased zincbioavailability, preventing deficiency and pro-moting a bene-ficial effect ongrowth, healthand reproduc-tion besidesreducing waterpollution.
A study con-ducted at TantaUniversity(Egypt) hasdemonstratedthe positiveeffect of BiometZn Aqua whensupplementedin the diet of
tilapia.The objec-tive of this trialwas to evaluatethe dietary cal-cium contentand effect of zinc source onperformanceparametersof
tilapia.Calcium aggravates phytate blocking of zincabsorption by forming insoluble phytate-calcium-zinc complexes (Xu Chien et al.2006), thus two dietary calcium levels werefed; normal (0.7% Ca) and high (1.4 % Ca)(see Table 2).As zinc bioavailability differs betweenorganic and inorganic zinc sources, oneinorganic source (zinc sulphate) and twoorganic sources (Biomet Zn Aqua and zincproteinate) were supplement-ed (see Table 2). The overallnumber of treatments waseight, and the total amountof zinc and methionine wassimilar for all zinc supplemented treatments.Groups of 15 fish (average weight 3.36g)per treatment were stocked into aquari-ums during twenty-nine weeks. This periodincluded a two-week acclimatization proc-ess, a twenty-four-week growth assessmenttrial and a three-week digestibility trial.Results from this trial indicated that zincbioavailability was enhanced with BiometZn Aqua supplementation (see Table 3).When compared to zinc sulphate,Biomet Zn Aqua increased (P<0.05) serumzinc by 46 percent and 32 percent in normaland high calcium diets, respectively.
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Serum zinc concentration and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activityafter zinc supplementation in tilapia diets
Basal diet 1 (0.7% Ca - normal) - Treatments 1-4T1-ControlT2-ZincsulfateT3-BIOMETZn AquaT4-ZincproteinateSerum zinc (µg/dl) 17.5 c 19.4 b 28.3 a 15.4 dALP Activity (U/L) 16.4 de 18.5 b 20.2 a 17.1 cBasal diet 2 (1.4% Ca - normal) - Treatments 1-4T5-ControlT6-ZincsulfateT7-BIOMETZn AquaT8-ZincproteinateSerum zinc (µg/dl) 10.2 f 12.7 e 16.8 c 11.7 eALP* activity (U/L) 12.3 f 16.9 cd 19.0 b 15.8 eMeans within a row with different superscripts differ significantly(P<0.05). Analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA).
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