ll significant commercialshrimp farming is based onthe penaeid species with the Whiteleg or Pacific whiteshrimp
(Boone)being the most important shrimpspecies farmed today.
This native Latin American species wasintroduced to Asia in 1978 and has spread throughout SE Asia. According to FAO statis- tics total world aquaculture production in 2008was 2.26 million tonnes with an approximatevalue of US$9 billion.Shrimp farming began in Honduras in 1973and grew rapidly in the 1980s.Today Honduras has established itself as theleading producer of pond –raised shrimp inCentral America with the Pacific white shrimpbeing the preferred species.The artificial ponds are mainly located in theGulf of Fonseca with approximately 18,000hectares of water surface area under pro-duction by artisanal, small and medium sizedcompanies as well as larger extension com-panies.Production in 2009saw record increasesof 40 percent,however the recent2010 productionseason was affectedby changes in thelarvae sowing seasonand excessive rainsaffecting the cultiva- tion areas.The goal for 2010was, according to the execu- tive director of theNational AquacultureAssociation of Honduras, to sell 45 millionpounds of shrimp. The production units, as wellas generating export income, provide 27,000direct and indirect jobs of which 40 percentare female workforce benefiting about 170,000people (Republic of Honduras, NationalProgram for Investment Promotion 2010).The largest export volumes of shrimp go to the USA and Europe but the market in SouthAmerica is increasing.
Stabilisation of production
The Pacific white shrimp has proved itself tobe a hardy species with a very good growthpotential. Domestication, genetic selection anddisease control of the stocks have been themain key criteria in the stabilisation of produc- tion and increasing survival rates.Further realization of the genetic potentialof stocks will be possible in the future by cul- turing in controlled pond environments withimproved biosecurity, good oxygen levels andexclusion of predators.Falling prices, which were a major featurein the shrimp markets from the mid-1990s to 2005, have changed the nature of shrimpfarming in Central America. The farmers inHonduras, as elsewhere, are today very awareabout their production costs, their efficiency of input utilization and their profita-bility. The uncertainties and risks asso-ciated with the industry have seen them re-eval-uate their traditional man-agement practises.In some regions thereis still a belief that naturalfeed in the water canprovide at least part of the nutritional require-ments of the shrimp.However, most farmersare moving to provide thefull feed requirement of the shrimp in semi-inten-sive
ponds with a feedingfrequency of 3-4 timesper day. They are using a higher proteindiet (30-35%) for the first 30 days of production and then moving to a lower protein diet for the rest of the produc- tion period.Protein levels of 28-30 percent are commonin this secondary production period and may even go as low as 25 percent.
Education in good management practices par- ticularly with respect to health managementand feeding of shrimp combined with a better understanding of the species requirements areessential for the farmer and for the further devel-opment of the industry.New concepts in feed formulation to improvegut structures provide essential nutrients andminerals offer the farmer tools enabling them to improve their production performance.By growing shrimp faster with higher survivalsand with less feed loss and lower feed conversionrates will gives farmers an economic benefit.Alltech has been working closely with farmersproducing shrimp in semi-intensive pondsin Honduras in Central America using anAquateTMshrimp formulation.A combination of yeast technologies, for-mulated under the name of AquateTM, have
helps provide economic benefit to shrimpfarmers in Honduras
By Mario Roman, Aquaculture Technical Manager for Latin America, Alltech Inc, Chile
36 | InnaIOnal
| September-October 2011-
F: Aquate Shrimp
Average Results of 2010, comparing 1 hectare
Treatment Control Aquateshrimp
Unit comparison11Density seeded (Pls/M2)15.015.0Quantity of Pls seeded150,000150,000Harvest data% survival55%65%Weight at harvest (gms)1919Average growth/week1.051.05No weeks of production1818Days in production127127Density at harvest (shrimps/M2)8.39.8Pounds biomass - whole shrimp3,4534,080Lbs of feed5,8706,936Feed conversion rate1.701.70
provided benefit through the improvementof biomass production, feeding efficiency andboosting of natural defense mechanisms in aqua-culture species. The Aquate shrimp formulationwas designed to supply a source and balance of essential amino acids and improve gut health and the attractability and palatability of the diet.In 2010, ICASUR a 350-hectare farm locatedin San Lorenzo produced 95 percent of their production of 247,950lbs using the AquateShrimp formulation.The Aquate Shrimp was added to their normal commercial diet at an inclusion rate of one percent. The production results of the 2010season were processed, by Mr Benito GomezFinancial Manager of ICASUR, to calculate theeconomic benefit of using Aquate Shrimp.In order to take account of the different sizeponds used during the production process theresults were calculated per one hectare and these are shown in Table 1.The use of Aquate Shrimp resulted in a statis- tically significant increase in survival (P<0.05) in the treatment ponds over the controls pondsand this average out at a 10 percent increaseover the production season.The total production per hectare wasimproved by 18 percent in the Aquate Shrimpponds in comparison with the control ponds. When the economic benefit was calculated by ICASUR the net increment was calculated atUS$0.30 per pound of shrimp produced.Other farms in the region have reported that the use of Aquate Shrimp has resulted inincreased diet attractability, which in turn hasincreased growth rates, with average growthrates of 1.71g/week being reported by somefarmers.By increasing the diet attractability less feedwastage occurs and the higher growth ratesobserved reduces the number of days to harvest.Similarly improvements in FCR of between 6-10percent have been reported.The feeding regime and strategy of the farmwill play a significant role in the results obtainedby the farmer.However, careful feed management and the use strategies such as the Aquate Shrimpconcept have been proved to give the farmersan economic benefit resulting from improvedfeed intake, higher growth and lower feed con-version ratio.
About the author
Mario Roman qualified in veterinary medicine specialising in poultry virology and monogastric nutrition. He hasworked extensively within the animal feedindustry in Chile. Currently he is workingfor Alltech Inc as Aquaculture TechnicalManager for Latin America wherehe works with farmers and feed millsfocusing on the practical use of Alltech’sproducts for fish and shrimp.
-September-October 2011 | InnaIOnal
F: Aquate Shrimp