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Table Of Contents

5.0BOOK OBJECTIVES
6.0BACKGROUND REFERENCES
6.1 Periodicals
REFERENCES
Fundamentals of Chemical Vapor Deposition
1.1Theoretical Analysis
2.0THERMODYNAMICS OF CVD
2.1 ∆∆∆∆∆G Calculations and Reaction Feasibility
2.2Thermodynamic Equilibrium and Computer Programs
3.0KINETICS AND MASS-TRANSPORT MECHANISMS
3.1Deposition Sequence
3.2Deposition in a CVD Flow Reactor
3.3Boundary Layer
3.6Reactant-Gas Concentration
3.8Surface-Reaction Kinetics
3.10Control of Limiting Step
The Chemistry of CVD
1.0CATEGORIES OF CVD REACTIONS
1.1Thermal-Decomposition (or Pyrolysis) Reactions
1.2Hydrogen Reduction
1.4Metal Reduction of the Halides
1.5Oxidation and Hydrolysis Reactions
1.6Carbidization and Nitridation
2.0CVD PRECURSORS
3.0HALIDE PRECURSORS
3.2Halide Formation or Halogenation
3.3Halide Properties
4.0METAL-CARBONYL PRECURSORS
4.1Characteristics of the Carbonyls
4.2Carbonyl Preparation
4.3Metal Carbonyl Complexes
5.0HYDRIDE PRECURSORS
Metallo-Organic CVD (MOCVD)
2.0MOCVD PROCESS AND EQUIPMENT
3.2Alicyclic Compounds
3.3Aryl Compounds
4.0ACETYLACETONATE COMPOUNDS
5.0MOCVD REACTIONS FOR THE DEPOSITION OF METALS
7.0MOCVD REACTIONS FOR THE DEPOSITION OF OXIDES
8.1III–V Compounds[64][65]
8.2II–VI Compounds
9.0GENERAL APPLICATIONS OF MOCVD
CVD Processes and Equipment
1.1CVD Processes
1.3Composite Nature of Coatings
2.0CLOSED AND OPEN REACTOR
2.1Closed Reactor
3.0REACTANT SUPPLY
3.1Reactant Transport
3.2Reactant Purity and Contamination
4.0THERMAL CVD: DEPOSITION SYSTEM AND REACTOR DESIGN
4.1Heating Methods
4.2Atmospheric and Low-Pressure Reactors
5.0EXHAUST AND BY-PRODUCT DISPOSAL
6.0LASER AND PHOTO CVD
7.0CHEMICAL VAPOR INFILTRATION (CVI)
8.0FLUIDIZED-BED CVD
9.1Principles of Plasma Deposition
9.2Types of Plasma
9.3Glow-Discharge (Microwave) Plasma
9.4Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR)
9.5RF Plasma
9.6Arc Plasma
9.7Characteristics of Plasma CVD
9.8Materials Deposited by Plasma CVD
The CVD of Metals 147
The CVD of Metals
3.0BERYLLIUM
7.0MOLYBDENUM
11.2CVD Reactions
11.3Applications
12.0TANTALUM
12.1Characteristics and Properties
12.2CVD Reactions
12.3Applications
13.0TITANIUM
13.1Characteristics and Properties
13.2CVD Reactions
13.3Applications
14.0TUNGSTEN
14.1Characteristics and Properties
14.2CVD Reactions
14.3Applications
15.0OTHER METALS
15.1Cadmium
15.2Iron
15.3Tin
16.0INTERMETALLICS
16.1Titanium Aluminides
16.2Ferro-Nickel
16.3Nickel-Chromium
16.4Tungsten-Thorium
16.5Niobium-Germanium
The CVD of the Allotropes of Carbon185
The CVD of the Allotropes of Carbon
1.0THE ALLOTROPES OF CARBON
2.0THE CVD OF GRAPHITE
2.1Structure of Graphite
2.2Properties of CVD Graphite
2.3The CVD of Graphite
2.4Deposition Mechanism
2.5Structural Features of CVD Graphite
2.6Effects of Deposition Parameters
2.7Plasma-CVD of Graphite
2.8Fluidized-Bed CVD of Graphite
2.9Applications of CVD Graphite
3.0THE CVD OF DIAMOND
3.1The Structure of Diamond
3.2Characteristics and Properties of Diamond
3.3Deposition Mechanism of CVD Diamond
3.4CVD Processes for Diamond: Plasma Deposition
3.5Thermal CVD (Hot Filament)
3.6Applications of CVD Diamond
4.0THE CVD OF DIAMOND-LIKE-CARBON (DLC)
4.1Structure of DLC
4.2Graphite, Diamond, and DLC
4.3Summary of the Properties of DLC
4.4The CVD of DLC
4.5Applications of DLC
The CVD of Non-Metallic Elements217
The CVD of Non-Metallic Elements
2.0THE CVD OF BORON
2.1Properties of Boron
3.0THE CVD OF SILICON
3.1Characteristics and Properties of Silicon
3.3Applications of CVD Silicon
4.0THE CVD OF GERMANIUM
The CVD of Ceramic Materials: Carbides231
The CVD of Ceramic Materials: Carbides
1.1Refractory-Metal (Interstitial) Carbides
1.2Non-Metallic (Covalent) Carbides
2.0THE CVD OF BORON CARBIDE
2.1Characteristics and Properties
6.2CVD Reactions
7.0THE CVD OF TANTALUM CARBIDE
7.1Characteristics and Properties
7.2CVD Reactions
8.0THE CVD OF TITANIUM CARBIDE
8.1Characteristics and Properties
8.2CVD Reactions
9.0THE CVD OF TUNGSTEN CARBIDE
9.1Characteristics and Properties
9.2CVD Reactions
10.0THE CVD OF ZIRCONIUM CARBIDE
10.1Characteristics and Properties
10.2CVD Reactions
10.3Applications
11.0THE CVD OF MISCELLANEOUS CARBIDES
The CVD of Ceramic Materials: Nitrides265
The CVD of Ceramic Materials: Nitrides
1.0GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF NITRIDES
1.1Refractory-Metal (Interstitial) Nitrides
1.2Covalent Nitrides
2.0THE CVD OF ALUMINUM NITRIDE
3.0THE CVD OF HEXAGONAL BORON NITRIDE
3.1Characteristics and Properties of h-BN
4.0THE CVD OF CUBIC BORON NITRIDE
4.1Characteristics and Properties of c-BN
4.3Other Boron Nitride Structures
5.0THE CVD OF HAFNIUM NITRIDE
6.0THE CVD OF NIOBIUM NITRIDE
7.0THE CVD OF SILICON NITRIDE
8.0THE CVD OF TITANIUM NITRIDE
9.0THE CVD OF TITANIUM CARBONITRIDE
10.0THE CVD OF OTHER NITRIDES
The CVD of Ceramic Materials: Oxides295
The CVD of Ceramic Materials: Oxides
2.0ALUMINUM OXIDE
3.0CHROMIUM OXIDE
4.0HAFNIUM OXIDE
5.0SILICON DIOXIDE
6.0TANTALUM OXIDE
7.0TIN OXIDE
8.0TITANIUM OXIDE
9.0ZIRCONIUM OXIDE
10.0OTHER OXIDES
10.1Iron Oxide
10.2Zinc Oxide
11.0MIXED OXIDES AND GLASSES
11.1Titanates
11.2Magnesia Aluminate (Spinel)
11.3Glasses
12.0OXIDE SUPERCONDUCTORS
1.1General Characteristics and Properties
1.3Direct Boride Deposition
2.0SILICIDES
2.3Molybdenum Disilicide
2.5Tantalum Disilicide
2.7Titanium Disilicide
2.9Tungsten Disilicide
2.11 Other Silicides
3.0III–V COMPOUNDS
4.0II–VI COMPOUNDS (CHALCOGENIDES)
CVD in Electronic Applications: Semiconductors345
CVD in Electronic Applications: Semiconductors
2.0ELECTRONIC FUNCTIONS AND SYSTEMS
2.1Conductors, Semiconductors, and Insulators
2.2Categories of Electronic Devices
2.3Modern Circuit Characteristics
2.4Three-Dimensional Structures
2.5Strained-Layer Superlattice (SLS)
2.6Thermal Budget
3.0CVD IN ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY
4.1Comparison of Properties
4.2Single Crystal Processing
4.3Epitaxial Silicon
5.0GERMANIUM
6.0III–V AND II–VI COMPOUNDS
6.1General Characteristics
6.2Gallium Arsenide
6.3Other Gallium Compounds
7.0SILICON CARBIDE
7.1General Characteristics
7.2Advantages of Silicon Carbide
7.3Thermal Stability
8.1General Characteristics
8.2Advantages of Semiconductor Diamond
8.3Drawbacks of Diamond Semiconductor
8.4Potential Applications
9.0PROCESSING EQUIPMENT FOR CVD ELECTRONIC MATERIALS
2.0THE CVD OF ELECTRICAL CONDUCTORS
2.1Step Coverage and Conformity
2.2Aluminum and Electromigration
2.3Refractory Metals
2.5Silicides
2.6Trends in Metallization
3.0THE CVD OF ELECTRICAL INSULATORS (DIELECTRICS)
3.1Silicon Dioxide (SiO2)
3.2Silicon Nitride
4.0THE CVD OF SUBSTRATES (HEAT SINKS)
4.1The Need for Heat Dissipation
4.2Heat-Sink Materials
4.3Diamond Heat-Sinks
5.0THE CVD OF DIFFUSION BARRIERS
5.1Principle of Diffusion Barriers
5.2Diffusion Barrier Materials
5.3Example of Diffusion Barrier
6.0THE CVD OF SUPERCONDUCTORS
CVD in Optoelectronic and Ferroelectric Applications
1.0CVD IN OPTOELECTRONICS
2.0OPTOELECTRONIC MATERIALS
2.1Critical Properties
2.3III–V and II–VI Compounds
3.0OPTOELECTRONIC CVD APPLICATIONS
3.1Light Emitting Diodes (LED)
3.2Light Detectors
3.3Semiconductor Lasers
3.4MOCVD and MBE
4.0CVD IN PHOTOVOLTAIC
4.1Photovoltaic Principle and Operation
4.2Photovoltaic Materials and Processing
4.3Photovoltaic Applications
5.0CVD IN FERROELECTRICITY
5.1CVD Ferroelectric Materials
5.2Applications of Ferroelectric CVD Materials
4.4Electrically Conductive Transparent Coatings
4.5Architectural-Glass Coating
4.6Infrared Optics
4.7Trends in CVD Optical Applications
5.0CVD IN OPTICAL-FIBER PROCESSING
5.1Optical Considerations
2.3Temperature Effects
3.0CVD MATERIALS FOR WEAR- AND CORROSION- RESISTANCE
3.1Wear- and Corrosion-Resistance Materials
3.2Wear and Corrosion Resistance Applications of CVD Coatings
4.0CVD IN CORROSION-RESISTANT APPLICATIONS
4.1CVD Metals for Corrosion Resistance Applications
4.2CVD Borides for Corrosion-Resistance Applications
4.3CVD Carbides for Corrosion-Resistance Applications
4.4CVD Nitrides for Corrosion-Resistant Applications
4.5CVD Oxides for Corrosion-Resistance Applications
4.6CVD Silicides for Corrosion-Resistance Applications
4.7Oxidation Protection of Carbon-Carbon Composites
5.0DECORATIVE APPLICATIONS OF CVD
6.0NUCLEAR APPLICATIONS OF CVD
6.1Nuclear-Fission Applications
6.2Nuclear Fusion Applications
7.0BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS OF CVD
CVD in Cutting-Tool Applications
2.0CUTTING-TOOL REQUIREMENTS
2.1Categories of Machining
2.2Wear and Failure Mechanisms
3.0COATING PROCESSES AND SUBSTRATE INTERACTION
4.0CUTTING-TOOL MATERIALS (SUBSTRATE)
4.1High-Speed Tool Steel
4.2Cemented-Carbide Cutting Tools
4.3Ceramic Cutting Tools
4.4Diamond Cutting Tools
4.5Cubic Boron Nitride (c-BN) Cutting Tools
5.0CUTTING-TOOL MATERIALS (COATINGS)
5.1Titanium Compounds
5.2Diamond and DLC Coatings
CVD in Fiber, Powder, and Monolithic Applications
2.0CVD IN FIBER APPLICATIONS
2.1Competing Processes
2.2Materials and Applications of Inorganic Fibers
2.3The CVD Process for Fiber Production
2.4The CVD of Boron Fibers
2.5The CVD of Silicon-Carbide Fibers
2.6Other Refractory-Fiber Materials
2.7CVD Coatings for Fibers
3.0CVD IN POWDER APPLICATIONS
3.1Ceramic-Powder Production
3.2CVD Process for Ceramic-Powder Production
3.3CVD Metal Powders
3.4Coated Powders by CVD
4.0CVD IN MONOLITHIC AND COMPOSITE APPLICATIONS
4.1Graphite, Carbon-Carbon, and Boron Nitride CVD Structures
4.2Monolithic Metallic Structures
4.3CVD Ceramic Composites
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Handbook of Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)

Handbook of Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)

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Published by: kenyaeng on Sep 05, 2011
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