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Naturearticle-on-G

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O.,VTT{EA'EI''TO-N-]ANCOArST.A.VrOFGRAi4TzlTIOAr.lI.
Itj;J.'"ll:bll^::,1t!1"k'lo*,tgdgernostofthoseresent
 thatSirsaacewr;";il;;;?*,"ii;'"'J*#:;"_f;:T;
li?i"Tt',iS,:iTi;.:: :ll:. i"^":l::il1asingrerincipre
 .p .l,ii,.i{;,'",i1"1x',''?i."i ',*..',':illl;;
herparticleorvarclstselirvith ;,:.',.ir.,^, ,^ _,.-
Jrrrprc!viz.ular,ev.ery-partlcleintheunivirseattrlctsanyotherparticletorvarcrst.i,rituiir-ruiorcerot i.t, iq . -,^,.^-
orcewhic.hs.propor_
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ad givento rheworld.Newtonalsoshowecl.thataspherical.body,whether
uniformtyenservaryr.ng;d.";U'".*irari"ni{;;?.ll;
rorntlrecentretotl
the"ml;;;;;;;,:;tf;';J,tll:f,::,"#;::*full
tiiscentre,.e.tl.rat'the;rt;.i;.;;;aryinginamountandirectionproducedy,particles;;ii;;.,,ofa sphereeectoreconsideredcparatel.v,utmaybeieatednthissimplevay.zNevgh s65 ,'though'N";i;.r";;;;;'a r.o l.y-i;,!;ffi"iJ;,tobrinsthewholeofthe.move,r.,.ni,i,n.pranetsandtheiratellires,hethertheir,simpleii;;i.;;;"n.rorionsrthedis-urbancesrocluced
comts,r'iry,I:,:!i#:l:i:l,J:1,il:,iil#:#lTftii
ll. 9:,i"i"oas.ingI'anai*pi.p.i.i;|",; ;1,-"f;I,J":Ji,i l.ne.!9omparehe-nras.sesfthe-ron,,1?J,il:ltj";"?l:::
satellites,ndoIthosebinaryii".t"**-iro."parataxrrasbeenetermined,onethinsc.anneverb._*J.'k;;;;il"";t.,l.lomicalesearchloni,though"1.*."r.'t'r,
suns.would"..q,,i,e,r.o'.uk";;J.i;f,]:t,T"Lii:,r."""-ll
qualoro+8Tupiiers,hatl"pii".ltl.r"thu'cloubleirtheestofthesolarysre
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anytonsofmattergotourakeup"n1,on"ofthem.Thoughweknow'ironlfirrip.,".fpfofdynamics,ytheereconsiclerationfcentfn,e"fi"lf",thatthervholesun
ttractsachonoftheearth,iiia ;;.;;'.;;;i,;';#i,"T;ri"i:
ofalittlemorethanonepouncl,"nJtt.,",ifitrverenotforhis,e.veryonofrheearih,"oufJ--"onii
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samewaythatrhe*'horeearthatrracti-""ir,,",l',1rr.',""""]11i,!force,equalo rher."iglri-nii.]n"oun..,andnomore,veannotellbyanvastronJmicalbservatio"*f,"t"u".r;;;;manytonsherearenall.
Nervtonshowedthatto_completehislarvandtoputinrheumericalconstant(theNewionl"".,L"".r^ntofGravitation)thatwouldconverthispropor.ri";;;;.;;equatity,rwomethodsareavailable:wemuyeiihe.;;k;';;"rvarionsonthedis-urbanceoftheeart'is,g."rit"tio"-u"y"'r"actionofisolatedpartsofit,rvemayeith"erfindthe"/.l"tiu.atrraction'fansolatedmountainorthe.tr"i,"Uo#'tf,"froito,o';i,",;.;p3rn":.orwemayma!3anartificialplanetofou.-orun-""at"atlreattractionwhichitexerts.TheNervtonianConstant-ivillbeknownifweknowtheorceoIattractionbetweentrvobor]ies*rr';rrrvecancompleterymeasureandweigh.-Ernployingtn.C.C.b.s).stemof,measure_ment,theNewtJnianConr.tint'i,"q*ttotheforceofattracr-
tionndyneserwe.lj::.,^01!!i;tll,.";"srammeach,wirh
heircentresonecentimetreapart,*Ofa-no.r"tnlaybereferred.topoundsandinches
quantities",c i"xi,i,t;;,::11"1?jds,ut''oo,'.s"nihe
Force:5'It{"t'9xllassf)isaneareknown,nomatternwhatunitshequantitiesremeasurecr.Gisknorvn.T^econversionriit-noni"rrcalvaruerro*o,l!:ll\:il.:,::easurementtoanother,oicoorseamerematterofOf thefirstnethod.f6ndingG,dependingntheattractionofamountainirstattempted.=b-y-d";;i,;;arrheriskofislifenthehurricanesfsnow^onChl;il;?;;,oftlieexperimentsof\fasketyne,fAiry",,,i,oiolt;l;];;""rnowfincltimetopeakIcanonlvrr
i{;' ."a*,-;:"11,f;,1,J;l,i^il,:l",,r*ln:;l*
lescribeo.night,"lr-t,'rt:ii'i;deli'eredattheRo-r'alnstitutioronJu.e8,b,pr,1f.e. \:.,r;3;'llJn:,'l:,1:,l:.":r".th:rtt*asthedirncult1.,,rl.i,:-,j"*ti,is,anclnot.L\\runsd.iscd\rr\.,...]ll]1.""sdiiranuc,hatdrlal'rrh."puirli."iio,i'of
NO.1292,VOL.5Ol
NATURE
[Aucusrz,t694
Aucus'r
_"^Yyletmegivescmedeaoftheminutenessoftheeffecttnathaso lremeasured.Isawallbuilttruebythe"ia-.i"lumb-linevertical.ordoesrl.unoui*ards?Newtonsprin-cipleshowshattheplumu.uou-ts;;;;;;J;y,i"*""ri,"yi,,i,hangsvertically.The*attracti;;-il';';-arrrnarrrcannorbeetectednthisway.Ji"entt""tt.""ri""ofarvholemountainr.eq_uireshemo-srefined".pp";;t;1;l"oJ",ir.Dorwomarbteslyrngon alevelablerushtogether?Accordingt"1t".,"i"";,liii:it1:theyartracton."noil*i;-y"tti:tt.ywerea thousand;,1;:,:H::herthanrheyare,nomovemenrfartr;;ii"""""ijAfterhisdearhCavenclishemodelle.Nlitchell,spparatusndperformedhefamousavendi.ir-..p".i-""t.Bymeansof theappararus,fwhichfor!!9secondi_eIshow?dl-.1;;;;;:ill.ill:iheatre,.Cavenrlish"*"."*ii'-ti.for""ofattractionDetween*'oballsoflead,one-r2"nJtn.;th";-";;l*ri;diameter,ndwithth,eirentre,SSS'lriiL"saparf..I,hesameexperimenthassincebecn.nadebt'C;;h,by.B;liy,;;;;;;;;recenrlvyCornuandBaille r_,h'gr;;tl;superiorpperrruso[nequarterofthesize.Alltheieob(eruersctu:rllydeter_minedtheattractionbetween;;;;;,*rri.rr".""i;;;i";;;..;
lfj#,T:Tit.""urhusoundiih;iir;;;ntd.g...,ofaccuracy
.[':'.:!l'::rx?';:$:ii:i,;:,-rj:mSlil:,;n;;;trf
theve.ight_orheearrh.r'.*rd*ioi-i;;i;;;;-;;;...,d;
titlethathasalrvays.been.[or"n'in'.onnectionrviththisin-vestigation.
ti;'i"'i'"T'."il''i:*iil'1,,iln,oii,"Tji''ec.retarv,hat
r'"d-'[een"'*.rshi;shecarrh,courrrult",tt"lllt1,tiJ'l
lf :"tj..r.of.rrryr.orkanytiri;g-..;;r"elasan acciclental
B:"fil#lfi,:I:*#11i13t1".tioii.pnysicistr'i*.,'raaedoheo,",,o'i"e"';fi:*::X'"::,t:ill !l ,".,."XoJ;;,:
Leavingmattersf,commonexperience,etusgointothephysicaliboratorvu.herenstumenrsfiir"-rriel,"r?"a"n.i"'"frecisionnddelicacy"ir"".1;;';ir;;;..called)reforin<loneverytable.Whatprecautionsaretakentopreventtheat-
tractionsftheixe{lncl',;;ir;-;,;li'i,""irii.x!;id";i1i.
theresultwhichtheyareconstruct;d'toneasureNone.Theattractionsresosm1ll,.h"ti;';;';pi"r"to,inuseforthemeasurementfelectrical,magnetic,ti.^r."1,o,"tfr.,.onituni,areth.ey.v-erhought_of,orisany provisionnecessaryopre_venttheifasi vn"r,heresu.lrJ;;h;t;;r;-i;;';;i.;;i%;',exist,andifonly'ihe-meansaredelicateenoughhevcan bederectedndmeasured.T'heRer,.Jorr"'rr]i"rrii'*"rt,i",,n.Ttodeviseasuccessfulp9t1oa.--ii"'*"r'rfrefirsttoinventtheorsionbalancevirhw*richc_.ur.-i'.i"d.r,i,famouselectricairesearches,ndwhichbearsCoulo;1,;';;_".He.evisedandhemadea.pparatusorthislr;.p";;';;,"#aianorlivetomakeanyexperiments.
parishcouncil.obje.toftheseearthhasnomorhasuponwhichandotcasionallY,thatIhaveu'ecimorepreciselYzplanet,suchasJrtrngtnere.I shallnotha'investtgatorsranlectedinPoYntinoftheliarth,"prexplaininntoredeveloptheapparecogntsenmylhavemadehisrPoynting,horvelvestigatorsuptoSttt'
Approximatedate
17374ol177+-76IIa:
I
I855Jarn,rSzrrESolII 85+r8E3VortiE5\'rigT-g8Ct8J7tE4o--1rrE5zrETo CrE89rE79-8o\rS78-9oiI884 [ii;or886-38r339In.on*.;,r;ofquotiugNervtwithoutany rlirethetruththantlcameafter hinr."Undecumquarnaqua, equadruploautteslquodcopiantuplomajorsitoterramquasicluiostensumit."p.373,inero.I haveplacedIshowedn actyearsago. \Vitan audiencel"retweenatrvo-inc'agrammeor 6ftdescribeo-nighbeinghatit issciselywhereeveofthisapparatumost wouldhav'truth of the prinand confidenceall thedimensicespecially he cranywhichhadNO.It
E,:
Le[rneexplainowtlretthisG,thegravitationonstant,raspreferoca'it,icrrhe."r."-or-.iirlnction,theNervtonianConsrantofGraviiation,hes""ifr;"fi"dowiththatorher
ir"J::ril{'."',iiil"'#ff,:,#il:I;*:...,:.J:;;ll{lll#**g
depenrlsoronlyuponG.. Lr",'J."'"f""thesizLftheearth,tsmeandensirv.helar'itucle,-irr.'!igi.,taboverhesea,anclfinallyupo.nhecrn6gurationnain"fSmpositionfrheneigh_
ff:';,','1"l',,".'oi,#' ,;"Ji:L',":,IJ**":.,gl
an;it isnotccnstant,utthathe.i;;;";,;i;;."i;ir;;.;h.earth,arbitrarl'.incidental,on,t,..*"u'tloor.prof.Greenhillshouldspellhisna'reu'itharittleg.*"L;,ontheotherhandl:-!l"t".n,tthatnrightyprincipleuniertheinfluencef,rhicdeverystar'pranet,ndsatellitentheuniverseursuestsarotted
il;if;[;:l,t#tli,"flJfi,5ffita?iifil:i:i*:;
mediunr,iknowsno.efr"'ctio;,-i;';;;;;,castashactow.Ir:'"1":ll':,:f,uspower,rvhich";;;;-;;;exptain;of itspro_
5:fil;:":'Jl',-'X?li.i:,:,;;T:S;::";iti,Tf,
olarsysterneasedoexistit,r.,,la!"","i;-;,;;;;;i";.."i
:xiil;i",il:T,];';;:"',?,,;ll:n,l,i'ir,llf;x6
aulariseablet6crecraretunio-url''o,i, g.uuitation,iilierife,a mysterythatcanneverbesolved.OrvingtotheuniversalcharacteroftbecorrstantG,itseemstometobedescendin.g{r9mthesublimetotheridiculousto
i
 
IST 2,1694
Aucustz,t69+)
NA'fURE
a.lrJJ^
enessoftheeffectre bytheaidofa;?Nervtr,nsprin-b.ylh"rvall,yetirallthxt ltcannotberfan'holenrountainr.I)otwonrarblesrdingto Neu'ton'sey wereathousandofattractioncouldIetusgointothehiehestclegreeofrllecl)are foundontoprelenttheat-minterferingu'ithrre? None.Theusinuse forthe,orotherconstantsirnecessaryo pre-ss,the attractionsroughtheycanbe.chellrvasthefirst6rsttoinventthesfamouselectricalIfedevisedanddnotliveto makeell'sapparatusandBymeansof thewa full-sizemoclel)rceoIattractionotherz inchesinrpart.ThesameyBaily,andmorereriorapltaratusofrsactuallydeter-coulclbe ri'eighedegreesofaccuracyrtionconstant,orn,the Newtonianrrvithtiratothertheattractionatrlquantity,whichsizeoftheearth,)ovethe sea,anditionofthe neigh-cticaandusefulandthepracticalnind.It isoftheProf.Greenhillr theother hand,tfluenceofwhich,ursuestsallottedfchemicalaction.isindependentof.sta shadow.It,lain;of itspro-It is innowaythe earth;iftherunchanged.Inorantlywonder,Whenwill aSt."itation,like life,rtantG, it seemstheridiculoustolingthe mass of,Iessaccurately,here under the:ctionwiththisexpressed de-:cretary,thatIit vulgarlv, I,tintrc.duce as.sana(:cidental'sicistthisrvouldal conference tot even sayofaPlumbline andpenclulumPlumb-line.\Iountain pendulum
,,
Ilinependulum
,,
tt
Torsion balance
,,
t,
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PendulumbalanceInconclusive
4'5-55'3r54'39+',955',76's6s5'77
Aboul7
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5'495'675'58
oarishcouncil.Thatis the businessoIthegeologist.ThebUjectoftheseinvestigations-istofind the value ofG.'fheeaithhasnomore todo with theinvestigationlhanthe tablehasuponwhich theapparatus is supported.It doesinterfereando'ccasionally,byits attrac[ion,breakseventhequartzfrbresthatIhaveu.eci.The investigation couldbecarriedonfarmorepreciselyand accuratelyon themoon' ofon a_ninorplanet,suchasJuno;but as yetno meansareavailable forget-iinethere.Ishallnothavetimeto-nighttodescribethework of formerinvestigators,andforthisthere islittle need, sinceit isallcol'lectedin Poynting'sAdanrs prizeessay"On theNIean DensityoftheEarth,"publishedthisyear. I cannotevenfind timetoexplainin more thanthemerestoutlinewhat I have donetodeveloptheapparatus ofCavendish,so thathewould hardlyrecognisen myglorified bottle-jack theballs and leverwhichhavemadehis name famous.'fhefollorvingtable,givenliyPoynting,however,represents theresults of thelabours ofin-vestigatorsup tothe p):esenl ime.Sulutza/v of Rtsttlls/rilherto oblaitted.
APProxinrateL,xnerimenterdate
,\I c I n.r0
hitherto.The rvhole dilficultyofCavendish,Reich, andtsailyhad beento measure son'rinutean effect;insteadofincreasingthis, I diminished it enormously,being satis6ed that Ishouldbeabie to make a proporlionatelymoreaccurate measureby sodoing.Cornu reducedthedimensionsto one-quarterIIhavereducedthechiefone toone'eightieth.Cavendishhaciaforceequalto tl365osrain'sweightto measure;I haveless thanafrve-millionth.By theuseof the long lever,Cavendishhacitheeffectofaforceofr/too grain's teightonan arm aninchlong;Ihave lessthana twelve-nrillionthofa grain onan arm ofthat length.Hisforces were fourteen hundred timesas greatas mine;hisccuplesortwistingforces werea hundredancltrventythousand tiuresas great.One advantagegained bytheuse ofsmall apparatus,inwhich alone the attractingballscanbemadelargecomparedwith the length of thebeam,is theincreasedsensibility,thegreaterangle of defleclionproducedbytheattractions when theperiod of osciilation isthe same.This ismoreespeciallythe casen my apparatuswhere thetwosidesare atdifferentevels. But the greatestadvantages in adirectionrvhence t rni3hr lea't be c\pccte(I.inspiteoIevery
E:9 y
endeavour thatmaybemade to keepthe air quiet,toexcludedraughts, tokeepall theapparatusat onetemperaturein avault of constant temperature, infinitesimaldifferencesmustexistIoneside of the apparatus must behotter than theother,though nothermometercouldbemadervhichwould detectthedifference.Inconsequenceofthis difference of temferaturetheaircirculates,and io creates a clraughtwhichblowsuponthemirrorand the suspendedballs.Now Ihaveshown thatinapparatus geometrically similarthesedisturbancesarelikelytobe inthe proportion ofthe seventhDower o[ thelineardimen-sions,whilethegravitationalcouples vary only as thefifthpower;the relativedisturbancesare thereforelikely to beintheproportionsofthesquares of thelineardimensions,so thatif we makeour apparatusten timesas arqe,the mirror islikelyto benne hundredtimesasunsteady. Inadditionto this,thetime needed to bringtheapparalustoa steadystateis fargreaterwith largeapparatus.AftermakingthegeometricalmeasuresI leavemyapparatus,smallas it is,three days, ifpossible,before observingdeflectionsandperiods,Thediagram(Fig.t) isa verticalsectionthrough the appa-
1737-40Bruguerr77+-76lllaskelynendIHuttonrE55JameslClarkerszr1Carlin-r 88oIl\{endenhalr85+:AiryI8E3VonSternecli1885V,,nSterneckr797-9ECavendisht837Reichr84o4tBailyr 85ReichI87oiCornuand'BailletSEgBoysr879-EoVonJollyr878-9oPoyntinqt884.[ionig,iicharz,andI(rigarNIenzelr886-88 Wilsingt889, Laska5'56-5'50In progress5'6925',493G'+6-->'52)In progress
5 5t9
In progres;Inconnectionwith this tableIcannotlose heoPportunityof quoting Newton's extraordinaryrophecy,marveilousn thatwithout any directknowledgehe gavea figurewhichwasnearerthe truththan thatfoundby many of the experimentershatcame after him.The passage sas follows :-"Undecum Terracommunis upremauasiduplograviorsitquamallua, etpaulo inferiusin fodinisquasi triplovelquadruploaut etiamcluintuplogravior reperiaturverisimileestquodcopiamaterire otius nTerraquasiquintuplovel sex-tuplomajorsit quam sitota exaqua constaretprasertim cumterramquasiquintuplo densioremessequamJovemjamanteostensumsit."(Newton's"Principiar"2nd edition,r7r4,p.373,linero.)I have placedon thewall thed.iagram f theaPparatushichIshowedln actionwhenlecturinghere uponquartz6bresiveyearsago. Wiih this I wasable, orthe first time,to showtoanaudiencehe effect of thevery smallattractionexertedbe'tweenatwo-inchcylinderoileadanda little onerveighingonlya grammeorfifteen grains. Theapparatus whichI have todescribeo-nights the same nprinciple,themaindistinctionbeinghat it is so designedand constructedhatI cantellpre-ciselywhere everygravitatingparticle isplaced.In thedesignofthisapparatus havebeen, aseveryonewilladmit,bold-mostwouldhavepreferred the wordrecklessbut knorvingthetruthoftheprincipleswhichI had developed,and havingfaithandconfidence nthequartzfibre,I deliberatelychoseoreduceallthedimensions o an extentwhichcausedheforces,andespeciallyhe couples, obe insigni6cantn comparisonwithanywhich had been within the reachoftheexperimenter
I292,
VOL.
 
.ratJJ'
NATAREfAucusrz,rgg4Aucusr
ratus.B and c representn accurately urned brassbox with alid L, whichcanbe made to tuin round. insensrblyby theactionof the wheelsv w. The lidcarrieswo tubularpillars,PP, fromthe topsof which theballs,lt lt, hang byphosphor-bronze wires,being definitely held in placebygeometricalclamps onthe heads ofthe pillars. Thelid also carries wosupportingpillars,nn.Inthe centretube the"beammirror,"N,hangs by means of a quartz fibre froman adjustableorsionhead surmountedby a belljar,and fromthe ends ofthemirrorthetwogold balls,nrm,hangbyseparatequartz fibres.Fourrings ofindia-rubber are placedonthe baseoprevent destruc-tion ofthe apparatus n casethe balls should dropby anyaccident.Nowitisevidenthat if the lid is turned from thepositionnwhich t is shown,hat is, with allfourballsnoneplane, in whichpositionthe attractionsdonottend otwist thecentral orsionibreatall,then theseattractionswillproduceacouplencreasingwith the angleuptoa certainpoint(65"intherefore,s such that agreatnumber ofmeasureswhicharedifficult, andcanatthebest only bemade with asecondo.ualitydegreeof accuracy,are of so ittle consequencehatthisdegreesmore than abundant.The final result depencisdirectlyuponafew measures hich, as hope to show,can be madewithfacilityandmostaccurately.Theseare thehorizontaldistanceromcentre to centre of the wiresbv which theleadballsare su.-pended, thehorizontal distancebetweenthecentresofthequartzfibres bywhichthegoldballs aresuspended,he anglethrough whichthe mirrorisdeflected, hemassesoftheleadbutnotof thegold balls,and thenatural ime ofoscillationofthe mirrorwhen the balls are suspendedandwhena thincylinderofsmallmomentof inertia,butofthe sameweightasthe balls, s suspendedxiall-vn their stead.Beforegoingmorentodetail and showinghow theoperationsarecarried outsothatalltheouantitiesmaybe knorvnwithasufficientdegreef accuracy, twitt be convenientoprojectupon
ThedrivingwheandthehandlesarilYsteadY'.-room,andalteralsoroundthetthetrainwrv'sensiblY.Twomovetheleadbturnthehandlapproachingantimes,finallYstsmalltelescoPe'isdividedinto5TwobeamstthesearestraigtrulYlevel.TlthemirrortotwhichIengra'beams.Aton'astoseeafinefocus,whileataprojectin.gbrtimecrosstnesexactlYover.thwardsthemicrthedistancebethearnountthaengravedIinesfrourthescale'OverheadwIabovetheaPPaservemanyPurmiddleoneofcrossbarjoinerlid(Fig.r),icounterbalancefrictionisgreathelidisina <Alltimeotdrumbythe Caplacedintheatheirpointsleeverysecond<half-minutes,arighthand.'lnomicalclockcontacts;butalsoallowednmeinformedoIhaveupballsandofthtohow theyatheirform andfor turninga<me twomoulcOne oftheseileadbail.Eashapeand sizeplatewoulddiof cigarette-p:in atall.Thwitha cylindrin the mould,surfacewhenhalfof eachintowhichIThereis alsora brassplug.the mouldisIt is thenheaThe necessarlis thencarefuneckis full.slab,anda bl.coolslrombemore leadisrin the necks,placed in ah,it,seet, the I,ISCOmpresse
Frc.z.
the particular case),after which the coupiefallsoffagainandbecomeszerorvhenit has turnedr8o".Sincethe effect isamaximurnat 65", verygreataccuracyinthemeasurementofthisangleisoflittleconsequence. Bymeans ofasmalltelescopeatadistant table, andthedividededge andvernier, I can tellthe angle withcertainty to tfzodegree;an uncertaintyof one-quarterofadegree rvould beofbutlittle consequence. Again, if thepair ol gold ballstwistaboutanaxis which is not exactlv thatroundwhich the leadballs arecarried,ifthereis any ..^llecce.rtricityof thegoidorlead bal.ls,heneccentricity in the commonplaneremovesthegoldballs from apositionof minimum effect, eccentricityacrossthe planeremovesthem fromapositic,n ofrnaximumeffect,ancifthe levels of the gold balls are not precisely thesame as thoseofthe leadballs, againthedepart ureis from a position ofmaxi-mumeffect. All thesethree eccentricitiescanbe determinedwithan accuracyof r/looo inch. Errors ofl/tooinch wouldntakea barelyperceptibleeffcct upon theresult.Thedesign,
NO.r292, VOL.50]
thescreena drarvingof thevaultinwhichtheexperimentshavebeen made.Prof.Cliftonhaskindlyallowed methefree useofthevaultunderthe Clarendon LabcratoryatOxford.This is showninFig.z, of rvhichtheupperportionrepresentsan elevation,and thelowerpart a plan.The instrumentit.elfstands uponthe tablear in thecorner,whereitis screenedfromtemperaiuredisturbances,which mypres€nceinthedistantcorneranda very smallflameproduce,by an octagonhouseofdoublewoodlinedwithcotton-rvool and by double felt screens,f, f,.Onthe secondtable,A2,areplaceda large astronomicaltiiescop.,'r,throughwhich the large scale,s,is seenbyre-flectionfromthemirror in the apparatus, asrnallreadingtelescope,, toread theangleof the lid and vernier,apulley-rvheel,?t,anda driving-rvbeel,d. The pulley-rvheel1,keepsthe corC-1,whichpassesroundlrandVr,andis attacltedtothecart,g, alrvaysightlystretched, so thattheobserveratthetele'scopJcanalwayskeep a little flame carriedby thecartimmediatelybehindtheparticulardivisionunderobservation.
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NO.

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