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Industrial Controls and Manufacturing

Industrial Controls and Manufacturing



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Published by: Nicolas Monsalve Medina on Sep 06, 2011
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Industrial Controls and Manufacturing
byEdward W. Kamen 
ISBN: 0123948509
Pub. Date: June 1999
Publisher: Elsevier Science & Technology Books
Industry applications often involve continuous-variable process control anddiscrete logic control in a manufacturing environment. Although a number oftextbooks exist on traditional (continuous-variable) control which is taught inengineering schools, there is a lack of treatments on control that combinecontinuous-variable control, discrete logic control, and manufacturingfundamentals. In an attempt to fill the void, this book contains an introductorytreatment of the essential topics including analog and digital control, discretelogic control, ladder logic diagrams, manufacturing systems, and productioncontrol. The material in this book is based on an undergraduate engineeringcourse that was developed and taught by the author at the Georgia Institute ofTechnology. A description of the course was presented at the 1997 AmericanControl Conference in Albuquerque, New Mexico, and was published in theproceedings of the conference.There is enough material in the text for a three-credit-hour quarter orsemester course. A semester course version may require supplemental material ifthree 1-hour lectures are given per week. In a semester system, the best format isto have a three-credit-hour course with two 1-hour lectures per week and a 1-credit-hour laboratory project. A detailed description of a laboratory project isgiven in Appendix B. The project provides students with hands-on experience inusing programmable logic controllers (PLCs), PC-based controllers, andsoftware for equipment interfacing, operation, and communications. The book isintended to be appropriate for junior- or senior-level engineering students or forpracticing engineers. The background for reading the text consists of someprevious exposure to calculus, Boolean algebra, and the concepts of signals andsystems. The part of the book dealing with continuous-variable control doesinvolve the use of the Laplace and z transforms which are introduced in the text.It is helpful if the reader has had some past experience using transforms, but thebrief treatment on transforms in the text is intended to be sufficient for theapplication to control system analysis and design considered in the book.MATLAB is used in the text to generate plots, compute step responses, etc., butno previous experience with MATLAB is required.The book begins with an introduction to manufacturing and control inChapters 1 and 2, and then goes into continuous-variable control in Chapters 3through 6. A key feature of the continuous-variable part is a development of aix
x Preface
modified PI controller that allows for the assignment of the closed-loop zero dueto the controller. This result, which is known but appears to be a well-keptsecret, provides a powerful method for achieving a desired transientperformance when tracking a reference signal. In Chapter 6 a brief introductionto advanced control techniques is given, including model predictive control,adaptive control, and neural net control. Discrete logic control and PLCimplementations are considered in Chapters 7 and 8. A systematic procedure fordesigning discrete logic controllers is presented in terms of a state diagram foreach of the state variables describing the desired control action. Boolean logicequations are generated from the state diagrams and then the equations areimplemented on a PLC using ladder logic diagrams.Manufacturing systems and production control are considered in Chapters 9and 10. Various performance measures for manufacturing systems are given inChapter 9, and in Chapter 10, production control is characterized in terms of theconcepts of push-and-pull systems. Analogies with standard open-loop andclosed-loop process control are given. The last chapter of the book deals withequipment interfacing and communications with a brief introduction to OPC, theGEM standard, fieldbuses, and Ethemet. Appendix A contains a list of textbooksfor further reading, and Appendix B contains a description of a laboratoryproject based on a process demonstrator. There are homework problems at theend of Chapters 1 through 10, and suggested web-based studies at the end ofChapter 11.The author wishes to thank George Vachtsevanos for conceiving the idea ofthe process demonstrator and his efforts in overseeing the design anddevelopment of the process demonstrator at Georgia Tech. Thanks also go toAlex Goldstein for his efforts in the construction of the process demonstratorand his input on the two-tank system that is described in Appendix B. Specialthanks go to my former student Mike Gazarik who developed and taught theproject laboratory for the course. Thanks also go to Dan Creveling, who servedas a lab instructor for the course; to Michael Barnes, who developed a tutorialfor the lab; and to Payam Torab, who provided input on the material on discretelogic controllers. Finally, thanks go to Marc Bodson for pointing out themodified PI controller, Ken Cooper for his comments on the text, Chen Zhou foruse of his notes on ladder logic diagrams, and Mike Vitali for attending studentproject presentations and offering his comments.Edward W. Kamen

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