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English-Strange is Their Middle Name

English-Strange is Their Middle Name

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Published by Jacob Dafni
This is a study report of an amazing animal, a sea-urchin. It is so full of strange unbelievable phenomena, which justify the title "Strange is their middle name"
This is a study report of an amazing animal, a sea-urchin. It is so full of strange unbelievable phenomena, which justify the title "Strange is their middle name"

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: Jacob Dafni on Sep 06, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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01/14/2013

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Sea Urchins 
Sea Stars 
Feather-stars 
Brittle-stars 
Sea Cucumbers 
 2011 
Jacob Dafni
This document is not a scientific publication, althoughit is based on a series of publications appearing in thelist of sources at the end. Is distributed on an individualbasis only for students and interested in the subject.For further explanations and comments please contact jdafni@gmail.com
EchinodermsStrange is their middle name
 
2
 
Contents
Personal Preview.. . 3
First Part -General account on echinoderms and echinoids in particular…
1. “Strange is their middle name "... 62. Morphological and anatomical traits of Echinoderms…83. Sea Urchins: Spine enveloped tenderness... 10
A. Skeletal structure ... 10B. Spines and Pedicellaria... 13C. A “muscle-less muscle”-unique type of connective tissue... 15D. Tube-feet as motion organ ... 16E. Digestive system of a Sea urchin... 19F. Body cavity and its functions... 20G. Respiratory System... 20H. Sensory organs and vision... 20I. Ecology and behavior of sea urchins (Covering reflex, straightening etc)... 21J. Virulence and toxicity... 23K. Variety of Regular Sea urchins in Eilat reefs ... 24L. Reproduction and larval development... 27M. The transition toward irregular sea urchins... 29N. Unique phenomena in Irregularia... 32O. Growth rates of sea urchins... 33
4. Other echinoderms (Sea stars, Brittle-stars, cucumbers etc.) :... 34
The case of Crown-of-Thorns Sea star... 38
5. Who eats them and what is edible?... 47
Second Part -Studies in skeletal growth and calcification in Sea urchins ...49 
1. Deformations in polluted sites... 492. Biomechanical approach; D'Arcy–Thompson hypotheses …543. Echinoid skeleton as a pneumatic structure ... 574. Skeletogenesis in echinoids.. 585. Differential growth of the sea urchin skeletal plates .... 606. Tube feet, attachment strings –regulators and deformation ... 647. Impact of mechanical stresses on the Sea urchins test morphology .. 648. The biomechanical role of the mesenterial threads …659. Soap bubbles model of echinoid skeletal plates ... 7110. Collagen fibers in the inter-plate sutures... 7311. A biomechanical model for the growth of sea urchins... 75
Bottom line: So, what is the difference between both kinds of deformity…78
12. Proof of connection between biomechanical forces and deformity... 7913. Why does the evolution of sea urchins as a natural deformity? ... 7914. Velvety Sea Urchin –is it a Red Sea endemic?.. 8215. Natural history of
T. g. elatensis 
... 8316. Epilogue and “take away lessons”... 85Acknowledgements ... 86Appendices:App. 1
. Sea urchins and the human genome ... 87
App. 2
. Experiment under the influence of pollutants on
T.g. elatensis 
larvae88
App. 3
. Taxonomic status of
Tripneustes gratilla elatensis 
.. 89
Sources -books and articles ... 91
 
3
A great love wasn’t there. I first met them when I was a young member of an UpperGalilee kibbutz. In the mid 1950’s I went to Eilat with a friend, and endured two days ofcar-hiking, through the Negev Highlands and Mitzpe Ramon, who was atthat time a roadconstruction labor camp, for the newly-paved road to Eilat. The second day of our journey we made in a huge "Titanic" truck where we were huddledin a seat next to thedriver, witnesses swearing of the driver on every bump along thedirt road to Eilat. Wearrived to Eilat in a moonless night and the lights of a millionstars joined faint lights fromthe opposite shore, from Aqaba, and the few ships moored in the bay. We fell asleepquickly, dead tired by the journey, next to the fence of the “Shekem”canteen the onlybuilding on the beach then. A two-story building, a hotel, was underconstruction then onthe north coast, deserted at the weekend
 . 
In the morning I was awakened by the blinding sunlight over the calm sea and deepblue, without a wrinkle of a wave. Before we went to the look for after any food or watersource, I jumped into the blue water, but within two minutes I jumped outside, trying todraw black spines driven into my bare foot. This was my first encounter with a Long-spine Black Urchin (
LSU
) (
Diadema setosum 
). Luckily there were only a few spines,and I couldn’t get off, but breaking them in the foot and bearing the pain that lastedthroughout our stay in Eilat. The corals, however,I met only on my second visit, six yearslater, made for more practical purposes
 . 
Like most teenagers at that time I also went the routine of armyservice and fulfilled thenational pathway of the kibbutz. Like most of my generation, I finally deserted the path ofcollective life and found my own way in the developing Negev. Love of nature hadalready touched me, and the call of the
Society for the Protection of nature in Israel 
(SPNI), a small non-government organization (NGO) with a long name, with an agendato oppose the national slogan “We shall clothe the land with concrete and cement" andfight the destruction of natural landscape that accompanied the feverish developmentindependence brought and the challenge of absorbing millions of immigrants, made me join their ranks. I was offered to goto Eilat to help stopping the looting of corals, that wasthen at its height. The SPNI, through an Israeli“chutzpah”decided to take charge ofasmall stretch of coast at Eilat, and turn it into a nature reserve. I would later learn that thisnature reserve was in fact the first of its kind worldwide. The mission was a realchallenge, with no existinglaw, or regulations at our aid, only a stubborn determinationofa handful of guides-wardens, who made a living guiding tours into the desert buttheir“free”hours were spent on the beach, where they fought a score of “Eilati’s" who made aliving picking coral from the sea, drying and selling them to travelers.HereI found the black urchin truly helpful. The few tourists who ventured into the waterto pick themselves a coral were deterred by the urchins. The “experts“were notintimidated by them. They needed more elaborated methods, and it was a long strugglefinally won..
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