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Science PSLE Preparations(1)

Science PSLE Preparations(1)

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Published by: Raghu Pavithara on Sep 06, 2011
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Albert Li Jia Wei
Science notes
PSLE preparations
Albert Li9/16/2009
Body system
The body system is made up of several different systems, including the digestive system, therespiratory system vice versa. They are all interdependent and our body would not be able towork properly without any one of them.
The digestive system
The process of digestion is rather complicated; therefore, I could be splitting them into smallerparts to explain. I would first be talking about the uses of each part in the system, then, Iwould move on to explain how to answer some commonly seen questions in the test paper.
There are four processes that will take place in our gut. Glands are also connected to parts ofour guts to release enzymes. The four main processes are ingestion, digestion, absorption andegestion. Ingestion is the process whereby food is put into the mouth. Digestion is the processwhereby food is broken down into smaller, soluble substances. Absorption is the processwhereby digested food molecules move through the walls the walls of the small intestine intothe bloodstream where they are transported to different parts of the body. Egestion is theprocess whereby undigested food is passed out of the body through the anus.
The Mouth
When food is placed in my mouth, we will chew the food into smaller pieces with our teeth. Theteeth will cut and grind the food into smaller pieces and speed up the process of digestion andaid in the swallowing process. The teeth are also made up of different types. The front ones,known as incisors, will cut and break the food into smaller pieces. Then, the grinding teeth atthe back of our mouth cavity, known as molars, will mash the food up into pieces. The processdoes not involve any chemical change of food substances; hence, we can say that the teeth playa part in the mechanical digestion of the food we eat. The salivary glands will secrete salivawhich serves to digest the cooked starch into maltose as saliva contains salivary amylase.However, the food usually does not stay in the mouth long enough for all the starch to bedigested into maltose. Saliva will also soften the food and make it easier for us to swallow thefood. The tongue then rolls the food into a ball and sends it to the back of the mouth cavity, sothat we can swallow. The food then enters the oesophagus through the process of swallowing.
The oesophagus
The oesophagus or the gullet joins the mouth to the stomach. Peristalsis then occurs in thegullet as the oesophagus move the down the alimentary canal. Peristalsis refers to the wave-likemuscle contraction of the gut, to propel food forward. The gullet contains muscles. Thecontraction and relaxation of the muscles help to push the food substances through the systems.Hence, the alternatecontraction and relaxationof the muscles along thewall of the oesophagusforces the food ball downtowards the stomach.Although no digestion occurs on the oesophagus, digestion of the starch by the saliva amylasemay still continue.
The stomach
The stomach is a muscular bag that contracts and relaxes. Peristalsis of the stomach will breakthe food down into smaller pieces to speed up the rate of digestion, and to mix the foodsubstances with the gastric juices. The gastric juices in the stomach are secreted by thegastric glands found on the wall of the stomach. The gastric juice contains protease that willdigest protein into polypeptides. Dilute hydrochloric acid which provides acidic medium for theproteases to function optimally. The acid also kills any harmful bacteria present in food. Thestomach also contains water. The walls of the stomach will produce mucus which functions tolubricate the food and protect the walls of the stomach from being corroded by the acidproduced. This is also why if we do not eat our meals regularly, the digestive juices and acids willbe secreted on an empty stomach, leading to gastric ulcers on the walls of the stomach as theacid digests the stomach wall. The food will stay in the stomach for about two to six hours andwill appear as a black liquid after some time.

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