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Theories of Failure From My SOM Book

# Theories of Failure From My SOM Book

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10/08/2013

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Theories of Failure
Theory at a Glance (for IES, GATE & PSUs)
1. Introduction

Failure:
Every material has certain strength, expressed in terms of stress or strain, beyondwhich it fractures or fails to carry the load.

Failure Criterion:
A criterion used to hypothesize the failure.

Failure Theory:
A Theory behind a failure criterion.
Why Need Failure Theories?

To design structural components and calculate margin of safety.

To guide in materials development.

To determine weak and strong directions.
Failure Mode

Yielding:
a process of global permanent plastic deformation. Change in the geometry of theobject.

Low stiffness:
excessive elastic deflection.

Fracture:
a process in which cracks grow to the extent that the component breaks apart.

Buckling:

Creep:
a high-temperature effect. Load carrying capacity drops
.
Failure Modes:

Excessive elasticdeformation Yielding Fracture
1.

Stretch, twist, orbending2.

Buckling3.

Vibration

Plastic deformation at roomtemperature

Creep at elevatedtemperatures

Yield stress is the importantdesign factor

Sudden fracture of brittlematerials

Fatigue (progressivefracture)

Stress rupture at elevatedtemperatures

Ultimate stress is theimportant design factor
2. Maximum Principal Stress Theory(W. Rankin’s Theory- 1850) – Brittle Material
The maximum principal stress criterion:

Rankin stated max principal stress theory as follows- a material fails by fracturing when thelargest principal stress exceeds the ultimate strength
σ
u
in a simple tension test. That is, atthe onset of fracture, |
σ
1
| =
σ
u
OR |
σ
3
| =
σ
u

S K Mondal’s Theories of Failure Page-3

Crack will start at the most highly stressed point in a brittle material when the largestprincipal stress at that point reaches
σ
u

Criterion has good experimental verification, even though it assumes ultimate strength issame in compression and tension
Failure surface according to maximum principal stress theory

This theory of yielding has very poor agreement with experiment. However, the theory hasbeen used successfully for brittle materials.

Used to describe fracture of
brittle materials
such as cast iron

Limitations
o

Doesn’t distinguish between tension or compression
o

Doesn’t depend on orientation of principal planes so only applicable to isotropicmaterials

Generalization to 3-D stress case is easy:
3. Maximum Shear Stress or Stress difference theory(Guest’s or Tresca’s Theory-1868)- Ductile Material
The Tresca Criterion
:

Also known as the
Maximum Shear Stress
criterion.

Yielding will occur when the maximum shear stress reaches that which caused yielding in asimple tension test.

Recall that yielding of a material occurred by slippage between planes oriented at 45° toprincipal stresses. This should indicate to you that yielding of a material depends on themaximum shear stress in the material rather than the maximum normal stress.If
123
σ σ σ
> >
Then
13
σ σ σ
=

Failure by slip (yielding) occurs when the maximum shearing stress,
max
τ
exceeds the yieldstress
τ
as determined in a uniaxial tension test.

S K Mondal’s Theories of Failure Page-4

This theory gives
satisfactory
result for
ductile material
.
Failure surface according to maximum shear stress theory
4. Strain Energy Theory (Haigh’s Theory)
The theory associated with Haigh
This theory is based on the assumption that strains are recoverable up to the elastic limit, and theenergy absorbed by the material at failure up to this point is a single valued function independent of the stress system causing it. The strain energy per unit volume causing failure is equal to the strainenergy at the elastic limit in simple tension.
( )
2222123122331
1222
E
σ σ σ σ μ σ σ σ σ σ σ
= + + + + =

( )
2222123122331
2
σ σ σ μ σ σ σ σ σ σ σ
+ + + + =
For 3D- stress
2221212
2
σ σ μσ σ σ
+ =
For 2D- stress
5. Shear Strain Energy Theory (Distortion Energy Theory or Mises-HenkyTheory or Von-Misses Theory)-Ductile Material
Von-Mises Criterion:

Also known as the Maximum Energy of Distortion criterion

Based on a more complex view of the role of the principal stress differences.

In simple terms, the von Mises criterion considers the diameters of all three Mohr’s circles ascontributing to the characterization of yield onset in isotropic materials.

When the criterion is applied, its relationship to the uniaxial tensile yield strength is:

For a state of plane stress (
3
σ
=0)
2221122
y
σ σ σ σ σ
+ =

It is often convenient to express this as an equivalent stress,
σ
e
: