Al-Qaida clearly distinguishes in its training manual and in other documents, itsorganizational funds and its “operational funds”. The operational funds have two mainobjectives, the first is to invest in projects that offer financial return to entertain localcells, and the second is to carry out terrorist operations.Apart from the operational level, one must not confuse the requirements of al-Qaida interms of daily logistics and the super-structure level, which is the real innovationintroduced by Usama bin Laden. The first purpose of money for al-Qaida at this level isto entertain the broad network of organizations, to fund them to stabilize and leveragetheir support and to develop their reach. Over the years, al-Qaida financially supportedseveral entities, from Libya to the Philippines, from Indonesia to Somalia. Figures hererange in millions of dollars.The second purpose of money at the super-structure level has been to pay for protectionand asylum. Since 1991, al-Qaida and Usama Bin Laden had to resettle in variouscountries after the opposition movement was banned from Saudi Arabia. It was the casein Sudan and later in Afghanistan.According to various intelligence estimates, less than 10% of the annual income of theorganization went to operational planning and execution, while 90% was used for thenetwork infrastructure, mainly facilities, organization, communication and protection.This money primarily originates from wealthy donors in the Middle-East. In the courseof our investigation for the 9/11 families, and as part of a judicial cooperation processwith the state of Bosnia Herzegovina, we uncovered major evidence proving this factor.The Golden Chain list of wealthy Saudi sponsors is an internal Al-Qaida documentseized by the Bosnian police during searches in the offices of Benevolence InternationalFoundation in Sarajevo in March 2002. Our team was granted access to this document,among others, following an order of the Supreme Court of Bosnia Herzegovina orderingthe US government to release this material.The Golden Chain lists the top 20 Saudi financial sponsors of Al-Qaida. It includes 6 bankers and 12 businessmen, among which there are 2 former ministers.According to our estimates, their cumulative corporate net worth totals more than $85 billion dollars, or 42% of the Saudi annual GNP and equivalent to the annual GNP of Venezuela.They include former leading Saudi banker Khalid Bin Mahfouz, businessman SalehAbdullah Kamel, the Bin Laden family, and several bankers representing the threelargest Saudi banks (National Commercial Bank, Riyadh Bank and Al Rajhi Bank).Most of them are or were involved, apart from their legitimate businesses, in charityorganizations as founders or board members.